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Veröffentlichungen von Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gisela Lanza

Referierte Beiträge in Fachzeitschriften

[ 1 ] Fleischer, J.; Spath, D. & Lanza, G. (2003), „Qualitätssimulation im Serienanlauf“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Nr. 1, S. 50-54.

[ 2 ] Fleischer, J.; Spath, D. & Lanza, G. (2003), „Quality Simulation for Fast Ramp Up“, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Systems.

[ 3 ] Weule, H.; Fleischer, J. & Lanza, G. (2004), „Quality Simulation for Optimization During Production Ramp-up“, Production Engineering, S. 147-150.
Abstract:
The ramp-up of a new production system has become a decisive factor influencing profif. The reason is an incessantly growing product range with constantly decreasing life cycles. Characterisfic for ramp-up processes are insfable production processes, that Iead to a !arge number of quality problems. The approach of Quality Simulation presented in this paper allows simulafing the insfable stafe of a production sysfem during ramp-up. Thus, the produclion planner is supporled during both ramp-up planning and 1he actual ramp-up period. Using Quality Simulation the planner can idenlify deviations from the target ramp-up curve at an early stage.


[ 4 ] Lanza, G.; Rühl, J. & Peters, S. (2010), „Monetäre Flexibilitätsbewertung von Produktionssystemen - Stochastische Simulation von Leistungskennzahlen und monetären Größen zur Flexibilitätsquantifizierung“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 6, S. 530-534.
Abstract:
Ausgehend von einer durchgeführten Studie über die Bedeutung der frühzeitigen Kostenkalkulation von Produktionssystemen unter Berücksichtigung von Varianten- und Stückzahlflexibilität wird eine am wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik entwickelte Methodik vorgestellt, um Produktionssysteme in frühen Planungsphasen monetär zu bewerten. Die Bewertung basiert auf einer Monte-Carlo-Simulation, die eine detaillierte Analyse der Kostenverläufe und der stochastischen Schwankungen über den Lebenszyklus eines Produktionssystems erlaubt.


[ 5 ] Lanza, G. & Fleischer, J. (2005), „OEE-Prognose im Produktionsanlauf“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Nr. 7, S. 554-558.
Abstract:
Die Planung und Durchführung des Produktionsanlaufs sind aufgrund der verkürzten Produktlebenszyklen und der stetigen Erweiterung der Produktpalette ein wesentliches Erfolgskriterium für Unternehmen. Charakterisiert ist der Produktionsanlauf durch instabile Produktions prozesse, die Qualitätsprobleme und Zeitverluste ver - ursachen. Dieser Fachbeitrag zeigt das Konzept einer simulationsbasierten Anlaufunterstützung. Sie erlaubt die Bewertung des in - stabilen Produktionssystems sowohl hinsichtlich Qualitätsfähigkeit als auch Mengenleistungsfähigkeit.


[ 6 ] Lanza, G.; Herm, M. & Ude, J. (2006), „Anlaufleistung in Wertschöpfungsnetzwerken“, wt Werkstattstechnik online , Nr. 4, S. 233-238.
Abstract:
Die Globalisierung, aus der neue Märkte mit unterschiedlichen Standortbedingungen und Lohnkostenniveaus hervorgehen, sowie der steigende Zeit-, Kosten- und Flexibilitätsdruck führen zu einer zunehmenden Dezentralisierung der Wertschöpfung. Ein wesentliches Bewertungskriterium für dadurch entstehende dezentrale Wertschöpfungsnetzwerke stellt die Fähigkeit der einzelnen Wertschöpfungspartner zu einem schnellen und kosteneffizienten Anlauf dar. Dieser Fachbeitrag skizziert ein Lösungskonzept zur Konfiguration von Wertschöpfungsnetzwerken unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Anlaufkosten.


[ 7 ] Spath, D.; Lanza, G. & Herm, M. (2002), „Multi Enterprise Scheduling with Evolutionary Strategies“, Production Engineering , S. 77-80.

[ 8 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G. & Ruch, D. (2006), „Flexible and intelligent gripping technology for machining and handling of spatially curved extruded aluminum profiles“, Advanced Materials Research, Band 10, S. 153-162.
Abstract:
With a novel extrusion process which is investigated in the Collaborative Research Center Transregio 10 (SFB/TR10), it is possible to manufacture spatially curved aluminum profiles. This process is the base for an automated small and medium size batch production of light-weight frame structures. For the handling and machining of the spatially curved profiles, highly flexible machines and manufacturing equipment are needed. Today’s automated process chains do not reach a sufficient flexibility.This article introduces a new approach to handle and machine spatially curved profiles using a flexible gripping and clamping system. Firstly, the requirements concerning the process comprehensive gripping technology, which have to be fulfilled for a flexible small and medium batch production of light-weight frame structures, are specified. Subsequently, the function and design of a flexible gripping and clamping system are described. Furthermore, metrological processes to maintain a once reached condition of order during the entire process chain are depicted.


[ 9 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Schlipf, M. & Behrens, I. (2006), „Quality Assurance in Micro Production“, Microsystem Technologies, Nr. 7, S. 707-711.

[ 10 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Ender, T.; Schmalzried, S. & Giemsch, P. (2006), „Verkürzung von Produktionsanlaufprozessen durch effiziente Inbetriebnahmeprozesse“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Nr. 9, S. 688-692.
Abstract:
Kundenindividuelle Produkte sowie steigender Wettbewerbs- und Kosten druck in Verbindung mit sich stetig verkürzenden Produktlebenszyklenbegründen die Bedeutung des Produktionsanlaufs für produzierende Unternehmen [1]. Ein effizienter und effektiver Produktionsanlaufgestattet einen erfolgreichen Markteinstieg, kann „Lost Sales“ vermeiden helfen und bildet eine Basis für den finanziellen Erfolg des Produkts und des Unternehmens [2]. Dieser Fachbeitragkonzentriert sich auf eine frühe Phase des operativen Produktionsanlaufs („Inbetriebnahmephase“) und zeigt eine methodische Unterstützung zur Konfiguration und Planungssystematik von Abnahme -prozessen. Durch die modifizierte Anwendung eines Verfahrens aus dem Operations Research wird eine zeitliche Verkürzung der Inbetriebnahmephaseerreicht. Damit stellt sich ein Kostenvorteil im gesamten Produktionsanlauf ein. In diesem Beitrag wird ein Job-Shop-Problem modelliert und damit die Reihenfolge der Maschinenabnahmeschritte optimiert.


[ 11 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G. & Ender, T. (2006), „A Dynamic Business-Process Based Production Ramp-up Simulation Model“, Production Engineering Research and Development, Nr. 2, S. 107-110.
Abstract:
Decreasing product life-cycles and resulting market pressure to launch new products in a high frequency are describing today’s automotive industry. Therefore production ramp-ups are gaining more and more importance. Production ramp-ups are characterized by instable business-processes within the organization, new products and new production technology. This combination often causes quality and availability problems which are the main challenges for a product launch in time and costs. Thus, fast reactions to quality and availability problems are crucial for competitiveness. In this paper, a new simulation based decision support system for production ramp-ups is presented. The system allows the simulation of influences on technically critical processes under the dynamic environment of a production ramp-up. Next to the theory, so called quality simulation, a prototypical implementation and simulation results are presented.


[ 12 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Schlipf, M. & Kotschenreuther, J. (2006), „Quality Benchmarking for Micro Manufacturing Processes“, Production Engineering Research and Development, Nr. 2, S. 169.
Abstract:
Research in micro production technology mainly focuses on the development and optimization of a dedicated manufacturing process. However, for industrial application, it is of foremost importance to know which alternative technologies are capable of manufacturing a specific work piece or a specified quality feature and which of these technologies are the best to choose. By means of altered quality function deployment (QFD) and a web based structure catalogue, different micro manufacturing technologies such as micro milling, laser ablation and Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) have been benchmarked concerning their capabilities to fabricate micro molds consisting of wear-resistant materials. Besides process comparison with regard to accuracy and efficiency, the new architecture of the House of Quality of the QFD facilitates the identification and optimization of critical process parameters. Furthermore, by means of the developed structure catalogue, the verification of machinability of product designs is assured.


[ 13 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G. & Ruch, D. (2006), „Using Part-Specific Scales for Positioning of Spatially Curved Profiles in a Highly Flexible Clamping System“, Production Engineering, S. 39-42.
Abstract:
This paper introduces a new approach to handle and machine spatially curved profiles using a flexible and intelligentclamping system. Firstly, requirements to the clamping system are specified which have to be fulfilled for a flexible smalland medium batch production of light-weight frame structures. Subsequently, the design of the flexible clamping systemis described. To maintain a once reached condition of order over the entire process chain, an in-line measuring systemhas to be integrated. Several metrological processes have been tested regarding their application on spatially curvedprofiles. To allow an exact positioning and orientation of the profiles within the clamping system for machining andhandling, additional marks were placed on the profile surface in well-defined distances. The functionality of thispositioning and orientation process will be illustrated in dependence on the gaging process of an incremental measuringsystem. Also, an outlook to an extended use of the part-specific scale for an integrated quality assurance is given.


[ 14 ] Lanza, G.; Ude, J. & Fronia, P. (2007), „Bewertung der Anlauffähigkeit in Netzwerken“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Nr. 4, S. 262-266.
Abstract:
Bei der Konfiguration von globalen Wertschöpfungsnetzwerken muss die Anlaufphase aufgrund der hohen wirtschaftlichen Relevanz explizit Berücksichtigung finden. Ausgehend von dieser Notwendigkeit stellt der Fachbeitrag ein Konzept vor, mit dem die Anlauffähigkeit eines potentiellen Wertschöpfungsnetzwerks anhand der Qualitätsfähigkeiten der einzelnen Wertschöpfungsknoten (interne Standorte und externe Partner) bestimmt werden kann.


[ 15 ] Lanza, G.; Fleischer, J.; Kotschenreuther, J.; Peters, J. & Schlipf, M. (2008), „Statistical modelling of process parameters in micro cutting“, Journal of Engineering Manufacture, Nr. 1, S. 15-22.
Abstract:
Micro production, with an annual forecasted growth rate of 20 per cent will clearly be a key technology of the 21st century. High-precision engineering, which uses miniaturized conventional manufacturing techniques, e.g. milling, turning, and drilling, has significant potential for application to the manufacture of micro-sized products with exacting precisionand accuracy requirements. Owing to its flexibility and its ability to produce complex three dimensional geometric shapes in a broad variety of different materials, micro cutting is ofspecial importance both for small scale and mass production environments. However, cutting in micro dimensions follows special rules caused by size effects. Successful micro cutting depends on statistically reliable and robust processes and therefore on knowledge about parameter adjustments and process characterization. Statistical analyses of experimental micro cutting data and modelling studies are used to study the effects and interactions of process parameter variations for workpiece material, cutting edge radii, cutting speed, depth of cut, and application of a lubricant. The results show a significant influence of most of the mentioned factors on the response variable surface roughness and specific cutting force. Based on the experimental data and the statistical modelling studies, linear models for the specific cutting force and surface roughness are proposed. In addition, the outcome is compared to theempirical cutting model of Victor-Kienzle derived for application in macro dimensions.


[ 16 ] Lanza, G.; Fleischer, J. & Ruch, D. (2008), „Genaues Positionieren gekrümmter Profile - Ein Ansatz zur Genauigkeitssteigerung bei der flexiblen Bearbeitung gekrümmter Rohrprofile“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Nr. 5, S. 357-362.
Abstract:
Der Fachaufsatz beschreibt ein am wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik der Universität Karlsruhe (TH) entwickeltes Spannkonzept für die flexible Bearbeitung räumlich gekrümmter Profile. Anhand elementarer geometrischer Überlegungen wird der Aufbau der umgesetzten Spanntechnik hergeleitet. Es wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, welcher die Genauigkeit der Profilpositionierung in der Spanntechnik mit auf der Profiloberfläche aufgebrachten Markierungen erhöht. Die Beschreibung eines Vorversuchsstandes sowie der ersten Ergebnisse zur Markierungsdetektion mittels digitaler Bildverarbeitung runden das Thema ab.


[ 17 ] Lanza, G.; Fleischer, J. & Ruch, D. (2008), „An Approach to Accuracy Improvements in the Flexible Machining of Curved Profiles“, Advanced Materials Research, Band 43, S. 123-134.
Abstract:
This article describes a clamping concept for the flexible machining of spatially curved profiles developed at the wbk Institute of Production Science of the Universität Karlsruhe (TH). Simple geometrical considerations form the basis of the prototypically implemented clampingsystem design. The approach presented in this article allows for accuracy improvements regarding the positioning of the profile in the clamping system on the basis of markings applied onto the surface of the profile. Besides, the preliminary test rig set up and first results on the detection of themarkings by means of digital image processing are presented.


[ 18 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G. & Schlipf, M. (2008), „Statistical quality control in micro-manufacturing through multivariate µ-EWMA chart“, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, S. 521.
Abstract:
Micro manufacturing processes are characterized by high process variability and an increased significance of measurement uncertainty in relation to tight tolerance specifications. Therefore, an approach that separates the superposition of measurement and manufacturing variation is demanded. A novel design for a quality control chart that makes it possible to monitor, control and extract measurement variation from manufacturing variation is proposed. Thus, a definite cause diagnosis on the approval or rejection of micro components due to errors either in the measurement or in the manufacturing process is possible. The proposed multivariate µ-EWMA chart which is based on weighting each measurement data with its current measurement variation is discussed and benchmarked with traditional control charts.


[ 19 ] Lanza, G.; Rühl, J. & Werner, P. (2008), „Kostensimulation für Instandhaltungsverträge“, wt Werkstattstechnik online , Nr. 9, S. 760-765.
Abstract:
Oft müssen Hersteller von Produktionsanlagen sowohl den Kunden während des Lebenszyklus aktiv durch die Optimierung von Maschinen unterstützen als auch ein wirtschaftlich attraktives Portfolio produktbegleitender Leistungen bereitstellen. Für dieses Umfeld ist eine Methode zur Kostenkalkulation von Instandhaltungsverträgen während der Angebotsphase entwickelt worden. Die Kosten werden mittels der „Monte-Carlo-Simulation“ ermittelt und sind durch verschiedene Einfluss‧variablen beeinflusst, die sich über stochastische Verteilungen bestimmen lassen.


[ 20 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G. & Peter, K. (2008), „Wie schlank muss die Kleinserienproduktion sein? Quantifizierte Wirkzusammenhänge von Lean Methoden und der Leistungsfähigkeit von Produktionssystemen“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Nr. 9, S. 754-759.
Abstract:
Die bei vielen großen Unternehmen erfolgreich eingeführten Lean Methoden können nicht unangepasst auf die Einzel- bzw. Kleinserienproduktion übertragen werden, da sie sich je nach Anwendungsumfeld unterschiedlich auf relevante Produktionskennzahlen wie Bestand, Durchlaufzeit, Maschinenverfügbarkeit, Ausschussrate etc. auswirken. Der Artikel behandelt die Fragestellung, welche Lean Methoden in welcher Ausprägung für spezifische Anforderungen in der Kleinserienproduktion auf Basis quantifizierter Wirkzusammenhänge geeignet sind.


[ 21 ] Lanza, G. & Ude, J. (2009), „Configuration of dynamic value added networks“, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Band 5, S. 561-570.
Abstract:
Globally operating companies face the challenge of an optimal and efficient configuration of their value added network. The participating sites, partners, and suppliers have to be selected according to their specific capabilities. Thereby the configuration has to respect not only the actual status but also the different dynamic influences of the nodes of the network themselves and also of the connections between them. This paper presents an approach for the configuration of global value added networks using business capabilities with special consideration of the ramp-up behaviour of the single elements. A simulation implemented in Tecnomatix Plant SimulationTM serves as a validation for the theoretic approach.


[ 22 ] Lanza, G.; Niggeschmidt, S. & Werner, P. (2009), „Optimization of preventive maintenance and spare part provision for machine tools based on variable operational conditions“, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Nr. 1, S. 429-432.
Abstract:
The reliability of machine components depends on their operational conditions. In order to maximize this reliability, the preventive maintenance intervals and the provision of spare parts have to be adapted to the individual load collectives. Up to now, there has been for different machine components no comprehensive approach to quantify the effect of load collectives and to adapt the respective actions accordingly. This paper presents amethod which calculates the optimal time for preventivemaintenance and spare part provision by a stochastic optimization algorithm based on a load-dependent reliability model.


[ 23 ] Fleischer, J.; Munzinger, C.; Lanza, G. & Ruch, D. (2009), „Position and contour detection of spatially curved profiles on the basis of a component-specific scale“, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Nr. 1, S. 481-484.
Abstract:
Flexible and automated small-batch production requires a high degree of facility adaptability for the product to be manufactured. Here spatially curved profiles pose a particular challenge in terms of the exact positioning and the assurance of component quality during the machining process. This paper describes the concept and implementation of a metrological approach to the positioning of spatially curved tube profiles for profile machining. Single laser markings put on the component surface are combined into a component-specific scale. The design of the markings is derived systematically considering the boundary conditions. The component-specific scale also constitutes the basis for an incremental identification of the profile contour, allowing for flexible inline quality assurance for almost any type of curved profile contours. Profile geometries can be described regardless of contours by means of cubic spline interpolation.


[ 24 ] Munzinger, C.; Lanza, G.; Ruch, D.; Elser, J.; Gerbracht, T. & Köhler, G. (2009), „Flexible Herstellung gekrümmter Strangpressprofile“, wt-online, S. 445-452.
Abstract:
Genauigkeitssteigerung einer integrierten Prozesskette zur Fertigung leichter Tragwerkstrukturen Im Rahmen des Sonderforschungsbereichs SFB/TR10 wurde eine Prozesskette zur flexiblen Herstellung und Bearbeitung dreidimensional gerundeter Strangpressprofile entwickelt und prototypisch umgesetzt. In diesem Fachaufsatz werden die Arbeiten zur Genauigkeitssteigerung in den Prozesseinzelschritten sowie eine Methode zur Vermessung und Markierung der hergestellten Profile über einen bauteilimmanenten Maßstab vorgestellt. Flexible production of curved extrusion profiles - Increasing accuracy of an integrated process chain for the production of lightweight frames The collaborative research centre SFB/TR10 is developing and setting up prototypical a process chain for the flexible production and machining of threedimensionally curved extrusion profiles. This paper presents the work aiming on increasing accuracy of selected process steps as well as a method for measuring and marking the manufactured profiles with the help of a part immanent scale.


[ 25 ] Lanza, G.; Niggeschmidt, S. & Behmann, B. (2009), „Ausfallorientierte Bewertung technischer Dienstleistungen“, wt Werkstattstechnik online , Nr. 7, S. 533-538.
Abstract:
Technische Dienstleistungen gewinnen in der Maschinenbaubranche immer mehr an Bedeutung. Allerdings ist der quantitative Nutzen, z.B. in der Phase der Vertragsgestaltung, oft sehr schwer zu bestimmen. In diesem Artikel wird deshalb ein Ansatz für eine Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse technischer Dienstleistungen vorgestellt. Die Berechnung der Kosten und des Nutzens, gemessen anhand der Verfügbarkeitssteigerung durch technische Dienstleistungen, basiert auf der Simulation des Maschinenausfallverhaltens sowie zugehöriger Reparaturprozesse über einen gegebenen Zeitraum.


[ 26 ] Lanza, G. & Rühl, J. (2009), „Simulation of service costs throughout the life cycle of production facilities“, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technologie, Nr. 4, S. 247-253.
Abstract:
Manufacturers of production facilities must not only be able to support their customers actively throughout the life cycle by optimizing machines and productivity but also by establishing a profitable environment for product-accompanying services. Therefore, a method has been developed which allows for the calculation of the costs of service contracts during the offer phase. Subject to different influencing variables which are deposited with stochastic distributions, the costs will be determined by the Monte Carlo method. The Monte Carlo method is used to estimate uncertain forecasts.


[ 27 ] Munzinger, C.; Lanza, G.; Otter, M. & Ochs, A. (2010), „Flexible Bearbeitung gekrümmter Aluminiumprofile Programmierung einer kombinierten Handhabungs- und Bearbeitungskinematik“, wt-Werkstattstechnik online, Band 1, S. 37-41.
Abstract:
Die automatisierte und flexible Bearbeitung gekrümmter Strangpressprofile in der Kleinserienfertigung ist im Bereich der Arbeitsvorbereitung mit einem erheblichen zeitlichen Aufwand verbunden. Im Rahmen des Sonderforschungsbereiches Transregio10 (SFB/TR10) wird eine Prozesskette zur flexiblen Herstellung und Bearbeitung räumlich gekrümmter Profile entwickelt und umgesetzt. In diesem Artikel wird die flexible Programmierung der prototypisch realisierten Maschinentechnik vorgestellt.


[ 28 ] Lanza, G.; Jondral, A.; Peter, K. & Toewe, H. (2010), „Reorganisation von Produktionssystemen in kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen mit Hilfe simulationsbasierter Prozessmuster für Lean Methoden“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 3, S. 125-130.
Abstract:
Ausgehend von der Automobilindustrie werden Methoden der Lean Production zunehmend in anderen Branchen und bei kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen eingesetzt. Zur Bewertung der Auswirkungen bei Übertragung und Einführung von Lean Methoden auf die komplexen Anforderungen der Kleinserienproduktion bietet sich die Simulationstechnik an. Um die simulative Produktionsplanung und -umgestaltung in kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen zu unterstützen, werden am Institut für Produktionstechnik (wbk) des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie (KIT) Prozessmuster zur anwenderfreundlichen Abbildung von Lean Methoden in einer Simulationsumgebung entwickelt und implementiert.


[ 29 ] Lanza, G. & Ude, J. (2010), „Multidimensional evaluation of value added networks“, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Band 1, S. 489-492.
Abstract:
The configuration of Value Added Networks consisting of globally distributed locations of a company and its partners and suppliers is a long-term decision and therefore subject to high dynamics and uncertainties. Furthermore the evaluation of different network configurations has to be done with respect to the underlying multidimensional target systems. This paper describes an integrated concept for the evaluation of network configurations using a discrete-event simulation tool with an integrated Monte-Carlo-Simulation to include dynamics and uncertainty and the PROMETHEE approach for the consideration of multidimensional target systems. The concept leads to robust network designs, which are adjusted to the companies needs.


[ 30 ] Lanza, G.; Munzinger, C.; Broos, A.; Behmann, B.; Hennrich, H. & Niggeschmidt, S. (2010), „Life Cycle Performance in der Produktionstechnik“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 7, S. 628-631.
Abstract:
Zunehmend rücken große produzierende Unternehmen die Folgekosten der von ihnen beschafften Produktionsmittel in den Fokus ihrer Beschaffungsentscheidung. Diese Entwicklung stellt aber sowohl die Betreiber selbst als auch die Hersteller der Produktionsanlagen vor große Herausforderungen. Am wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie (KIT) wurde daher ein Forschungsschwerpunkt „Life Cycle Performance“ (LCP) etabliert, welcher diese Entwicklung zur Betrachtung des gesamten Lebenszyklus von Investitionsgütern wissenschaftlich begleitet und sowohl die Betreiber als auch die Hersteller dabei unterstützt, Vorteile aus ihr zu ziehen.


[ 31 ] Lanza, G.; Weiler, S. & Vogt, S. (2010), „Design for low-cost country sourcing: Defining the interface between productdesign and production“, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Band 2, Nr. 4, S. 261-271.
Abstract:
Not every product can be successfully sourced in low-cost countries. Disadvantageous cost structures or extremely complex workpiece designs are the most frequent reasons for failures. A design that has been tailored to low-cost country sourcing offers the possibility of increasing potentials while reducing risks and costs at the same time. This paper highlights different possibilities to define the interface between product design and production in low-cost countries, identifies the factors influencing the design, deduces basic principles and illustrates guidelines for an adapted product design.


[ 32 ] Lanza, G.; Schulze, V.; Stockey, S.; Chlipala, M. & Peters, J. (2010), „Detection of shape deviations and measurement errorsby a point cloud analysis“, Production Engineering - Research and Development, Nr. 6, S. 599-605.
Abstract:
For the enhancement of technical workpiece surfaces with even larger dimensions, the application of microstructures on the surface is an appropriate way to improve the fitness for use without changing the properties of the basic material. Considering the extremely small dimensions of approximately 5–20 μm of the applied microstructure, the quality assurance faces new challenges related to the obtainment and evaluation of measurement data. This article presents an approach for the automated detection of shape deviations of a microstructure, as well as the detection of measurement errors during an optical or tactile measurement. The explained algorithm is based on the analysis of the measurement points within a point cloud by observing the distances between the single points. To illustrate the disturbance in the measurement point cloud every point is evaluated by an adaptive weighting function. The weighting of each measurement point can then be visualized by plotting the whole point cloud according to a corresponding color scale. The suitability of the point cloud analysis is demonstrated by the examples of a shape deviation (artificial groove) and a measurement error, occurred by measurement via confocal microscopy.


[ 33 ] Lanza, G.; Viering, B.; Kippenbrock, K. & Stockey, S. (2010), „Messunsicherheit als bedeutende Größe in der Mikroproduktion“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 11, S. 875-879.
Abstract:
Die Kenntnis der Messunsicherheit ist speziell bei der Qualitätssicherung von Bauteilen im Mikrometerbereich wesentlich. Dies hat seinen Grund in den bei Mikrometerbauteilen in Relation zur Bauteilgröße großen Formabweichungen sowie den engen Spezifikations -grenzen. Der Fachartikel befasst sich mit den aktuellen Arbeiten am wbk - Institut für Produktionstechnik - zur Abschätzung der Mess -unsicherheit, zum Einfluss der Messunsicherheit auf die Prozessfähigkeit sowie zur Wirkung von Formabweichungen auf die Messunsicherheit im Mikrometerbereich.


[ 34 ] Lanza, G.; Peter, K.; Rühl, J. & Peters, S. (2010), „Assessment of flexible quantities and product variants in production“, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Band 4, S. 279.
Abstract:
An increasing product variety causes different cost effects in several divisions of a company. These effects have to be identified in order to compare them to potential revenues. However, at the time strategic market decisions have to be made, not all detailed information about product variants and quantities are available. Analyses of future cost development and the choice of the manufacturing system are difficult and uncertain. Within the framework of the project “VireS” a simulation algorithm was developed at the Institute of Production Science (wbk) to simulate future developments of life cycle costs of manufacturing systems depending on quantities and varieties in an uncertain environment.


[ 35 ] Schlipf, M.; Bathurst, S.; Kippenbrock, K.; Kim, S. & Lanza, G. (2010), „A structured approach to integrate MEMS and Precision Engineering methods“, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Band 3, S. 236-247.
Abstract:
Two different kinds of manufacturing technologies are used to produce micro systems or micro structures on macro-scale parts. MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) are produced by using bottom up techniques such as lithography, etching and bonding, which were adopted from well established microelectronic manufacturing processes. Precision Engineering systems apply a top-down approach and use very precise versions of conventional manufacturing techniques such as milling, turning or powder injection molding to produce micro-mechanical parts. At the present time, both technologies face the challenge of long iterative product development cycles before the functionality of the product and the set-up of the production system can be verified. A structured, systematic, and rational design approach including the verification of both the product’s functionality and its efficient manufacturability is necessary to enable the fast development and cost-effective production of so-called killer applications. Even though both approaches offer complementary advantages concerning the range of materials, design flexibility and the capability to produce parts in small and large volumes, there have been no attempts to integrate the two technologies up to now. Through the framework of axiomatic design, this paper proposes a structured approach to derive and simultaneously verify micro systems and the necessary manufacturing processes by applying and integrating both Precision Engineering and MEMS techniques.


[ 36 ] Peter, K. & Lanza, G. (2011), „Company-specific quantitative evaluation of lean production methods“, Production Engineering - Research and Development, Band 1, S. 81-87.
Abstract:
Small and medium-sized companies encounter enormous difficulties when trying to implement lean production methods according to the role model of the Toyota Production System. This is caused by the varying effects of lean methods on production figures depending on the production conditions concerning product variety and volumes, variation of process and set-up times, etc. This article presents approaches developed at the Institute of Production Science (wbk), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, to evaluate and optimize the effects of lean methods in small series productions based on the quantified interdependencies with the relevant target figures. It enables the best combination of lean methods to be identified and recommendations for the efficient implementation of these lean methods.


[ 37 ] Gans, J.; Lanza, G.; Müller, R.; Peters, S. & Schoen, L. (2011), „Prognose des Driftverhaltens getakteter Montagelinien“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 3, S. 162-166.
Abstract:
Die zunehmende Variantenvielfalt ist eine Herausforderung bei der Kapazitätsabstimmung von Fließmontagelinien. Kurzfristige Veränderungen der Produktionsaufgabe sind eine Herausforderung bei der Umsetzung effizienter Prozesse. Durch die Anhäufung zeitintensiver Werkstücke können Situationen auftreten, in denen Arbeitsplätze überlastet werden. Die Daimler AG entwickelte in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Institut für Produktionstechnik (wbk), Karlsruhe, eine Methode auf Basis eines Warteschlangenmodells, um Auswirkungen von Veränderungen des Produktionsprogramms frühzeitig zu bewerten.


[ 38 ] Lanza, G. & Viering, B. (2011), „A novel standard for the experimental estimation of the uncertainty of measurement for micro gear measurements“, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Band 1, S. 543-546.
Abstract:
In micrometer dimensions the uncertainty of measurement is essential for reliably determining part quality. However, calibrated standards are necessary to experimentally estimate the uncertainty of measurement. Due to the complex shape of micro gears (e.g. involute tooth flanks), which cannot be manufactured precisely enough to be represented in the standard, simple geometric elements are utilized. The presented novel micro gear standard uses cylinders to model the involute tooth flanks. The approach describes the estimation of the uncertainty of measurement for measurements of the profile, helix, pitch and tooth flank deviations. Furthermore, initial measurement results of a prototypical standard are provided.


[ 39 ] Lanza, G.; Furmans, K.; Jondral, A.; Peter, K.; Matzka, J. & Özden, E. (2011), „Quantitative Analyse stochastischer Einflüsse auf die Leistungsfähigkeit von Produktionssystemen“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 4, S. 210-213.
Abstract:
Um Handlungsempfehlungen zur Auslegung robuster Produktionssysteme geben zu können, muss zunächst die Leistungsfähigkeit eines Produktionssystems bei Veränderung stochastischer Einflussgrößen (beispielsweise Nachfrageschwankungen oder Materialverknappung) untersucht werden. Zur Leistungsanalyse eignen sich unter anderem analytische und simulationstechnische Ansätze. Dieser Fachbeitrag beschreibt ein hybrides Analyseverfahren, bei dem die Simulation von komplexen Produktionssystemen zur Reduzierung von Simulationszeit und -aufwand an zweckmäßiger Stelle durch analytische Teilberechnungen ergänzt wird. Entwickelt wird die hybride Modellierung seit Mai 2010 in einem interdisziplinären Projekt des wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik und des Institut für Fördertechnik und Logistiksysteme (IFL) des Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). Die Forschungsarbeiten werden von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) gefördert.


[ 40 ] Lanza, G. & Herr, M. (2011), „Globale Technologie-Roadmap *Standortbezogene Produktionstechnologiebewertung zur Risikominimierung und Chancensteigerung eines Auslandsengagements.“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 4, S. 7.
Abstract:
Eine global agierende Produktion verlangt den weltweiten Einsatz von Produktionstechnologien unter differierenden standortspezifischen Rahmenbedingungen. Zur optimalen Nutzung der jeweiligen Standortvorteile ist eine individuelle Anpassung in vielen Fällen sinnvoll, jedoch oftmals aufgrund produktseitiger Vorgaben oder strategischer Ausrichtungen nicht umsetzbar. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es wichtig, eine Entscheidungsunterstützung zur richtigen Produktionstechnologieauswahl zur Hand zu haben. Einen Ansatz hierzu bietet eine neu entwickelte Methode zur Identifikation der mit einem Technologietransfer verbundenen standortspezifischen Risiken und Chancen. Global Technology Roadmap - Location-related production technology evaluation for risk minimization and increasing the opportunities in the case of commitments abroad Globally active production logically entails the worldwide use of production technologies under differing location-specific boundary conditions. Individual adaptation makes sense in many cases in order to exploit the advantages of the respective location in an optimum manner. This can, however, often not be realized due to product-related specifications or strategic orientations. Against this background, it is important to have a decision support system at hand in order to be able to select the appropriate production technology. An approach for the identification of the location-specific risks and opportunities associated with technology transfer is offered by this method.


[ 41 ] Lanza, G.; Moser, R.; Ruhrmann, S. & Peter, K. (2011), „Systematisch zum wandlungsfähigen globalen Wertschöpfungsnetzwerk“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 4, S. 206-209.
Abstract:
Deutsche Produktionsunternehmen haben sich mit voranschreitender Globalisierung in globalen Wertschöpfungsnetzwerken aufgestellt. Bisher reagieren diese bei dynamischen Veränderungen der Einflussfaktoren mit kurzfristigen, flexiblen Änderungen zur Anpassung der bestehenden Produktionsstruktur. Kurzfristige Änderungen sind oft kostspielig und ihre tatsächlichen Effekte nicht vorhersehbar. Langfristige Potentiale dagegen liegen in der Implementierung wandlungsfähiger Strukturen. Seit September 2010 wird im Verbundforschungsprojekt „Planung und Optimierung wandlungsfähiger globaler Wertschöpfungsnetzwerke (POWer.net)“, das vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) gefördert und vom Projektträger Karlsruhe (PTKA) betreut wird, ein Ansatz zur Konfiguration wandlungsfähiger Netzwerke erarbeitet. Dieser Fachbeitrag beschreibt einen systematischen Leitfaden zur Ist-Analyse existierender Wertschöpfungsnetzwerke mit Blick auf die anschließende Konfiguration wandlungsfähiger Strukturen. Im Mittelpunkt stehen neben relevanten Informationen zum Zeitpunkt der Ist-Analyse auch Inhalte für die Identifikation zukünftiger Wandlungsbefähiger und Wandlungstreiber.


[ 42 ] Weiler, S.; Páez, D.; Chun, J.; Graves, S. C. & Lanza, G. (2011), „Supply chain design for the global expansion of manufacturing capacity in emerging markets“, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Band 3, S. 265-280.
Abstract:
Any decision a company takes concerning the global expansion of its value network has major economic implications and is highly complex. Many diverse aspects must be taken into consideration when such a decision is made to ensure that a robust network is configured which will allow the company to be economically successful in the future in spite of the volatile environment it is affected by. It is against this context that the LMP and the wbk jointly developed a decision support method for the configuration and evaluation of the global expansion of value networks. The successful implementation and application of the approach are shown on the basis of a practical case study.


[ 43 ] Lanza, G. & Ertel, A. (2011), „Ressourceneffizienz im Produktionsanlauf Personalbedarfsplanung mittels einer kombiniert heuristischen und simulativen Planungsmethode“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 9, S. 606-610.
Abstract:
Eine große Breite an Produkten am Markt anzubieten, während deren Lebenszyklusdauer abnimmt, stellt für Unternehmen eine Herausforderung dar. Insbesondere der frühe Markteintrittszeitpunkt und die daraus resultierende Reduktion von Lost Sales sind Wettbewerbsvorteile gegenüber der Konkurrenz. Schlüsselprozess ist die effiziente Ressourcenplanung des Produktionsanlaufs. Der Beitrag beschreibt die Entwicklung eines Modells zur Unterstützung der Prognose des Personalbedarfs im Produktionsanlauf.


[ 44 ] Stoll, J.; Özden, E.; Jondral, A.; Furmans, K. & Lanza, G. (2012), „Hybride Modellierung zur Auslegung und Leistungsmessung in Produktionssystemen“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 4, S. 217-221.
Abstract:
Zur Leistungsbewertung von Produktionssystemen unter Berücksichtigung stochastischer Einflussgrößen - wie Nachfrageschwankungen oder Materialverknappung - eignen sich unter anderem analytische und simulationstechnische Ansätze. Der Fachbeitrag beschreibt drei hybride Modellierungsverfahren, mit deren Hilfe die Vorteile von analytischen Methoden und Simulation vereint werden und die zur Leistungsbewertung komplexer Produktionssysteme verwendet werden können. Entwickelt werden die beschriebenen hybriden Modellierungsverfahren seit Mai 2010 in einem interdisziplinären Projekt des Instituts für Fördertechnik und Logistiksysteme (IFL) sowie des Instituts für Produktionstechnik (wbk) des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie (KIT). Die Forschungsarbeiten werden von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) gefördert (DFG FU 273/8-1, LA 2351/6-1).


[ 45 ] Lanza, G. & Peters, S. (2012), „Integrated capacity planning over highly volatile horizons“, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology (2012), S. 395-398.
Abstract:
Today production planning has to deal with highly dynamic markets and increasing uncertainties. Moreover, it has to take into account possibilities of the surrounding production network. By combining a queueing theory model with a stochastic, dynamic optimization approach, a method to support decision making in production planning was developed. Hereby, a Markovian Decision Process is solved to find cost minimal policies as reactions to volatile market demands for minimizing costs due to capacity adaptations, changes in process steps, and locations. The method was applied at an automotive supplier to find suitable system configurations and investment decisions for an uncertain future.


[ 46 ] Lanza, G.; Moser, R. & Ruhrmann, S. (2012), „Wandlungstreiber global agierender Produktionsunternehmen - Sammlung, Klassifikation und Quantifizierung“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 4, S. 200-205.
Abstract:
Globally operating companies are set up in global value added networks. Their current environment is characterized by dynamism, complexity and uncertainty. Furthermore companies are constantly challenged to respond adequately to the rapid changes in environment. Therefore it is crucial to identify company-specific factors which require changes - so called drivers of change. This article presents a method to identify changing drivers of globally operating companies. In addition, the method enables to quantify the changing drivers and determines the effect relationships based on the application of a system dynamics approach. The presented method has been developed in the framework of the research project Design and optimization of changeable global value added networks (POWer.net) funded by Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) and managed by PTKA Karlsruhe.


[ 47 ] Helu, M.; Behmann, B.; Meier, H.; Dornfeld, D.; Lanza, G. & Schulze, V. (2012), „Impact of green machining strategies on achieved surface quality“, CIRP Annals, S. 55-58.
Abstract:
Green machining strategies can affect several aspects of a manufacturing system including part quality, which must remain sufficient to ensure the product's value. Improved part quality can also reduce life cycle environmental impacts through increased resource efficiency, which adds a further consideration. This paper quantifies the impact of these strategies on the achieved surface quality of turned titanium in the context of various resource costs including electrical energy, tool wear, and service costs. The results suggest that the final surface quality is most influenced by the finish cut(s) and feed rate. Part functionality is also an important consideration for resource efficiency.


[ 48 ] Lanza, G.; Fleischer, J.; Schulze, V.; Appel, D.; Behmann, B. & Bertsch, D. (2012), „Life Cycle Performance in der Produktionstechnik“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 7, S. 513-517.
Abstract:
Für produzierende Unternehmen an Hochlohnstandorten ist eine Kostenbetrachtung über Lebenszyklen entscheidend. Dies stellt sowohl Betreiber als auch Hersteller von Produktionsanlagen vor Herausforderungen. Am Institut für Produktionstechnik (wbk) des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie (KIT) wurde der Forschungsschwerpunkt Life Cycle Performance (LCP) etabliert, welcher auf die Bewertung, Optimierung und Gestaltung von zuverlässigen und effizienten Systemen über den gesamten Lebenszyklus abzielt.


[ 49 ] Lanza, G.; Peters, S. & Herrmann, H. (2012), „Dynamic optimization of manufacturing systems in automotive industries“, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Band 4, S. 235-240.
Abstract:
The automotive industry faces major challenges due to volatile markets and expenses for new technologies. The dynamics of markets and future technological variety demand flexibility. A sustainable transformation strategy is indispensable for upcoming decades. The following paper presents an approach supporting both, tactical as well as strategic decision-making in volatile manufacturing environments. At first, operating costs and performance figures of manufacturing systems are calculated. In step two, a Markovian Decision Process is solved to find a cost minimal policy over planning horizons. The optimization of the manufacturing system is based on capacity adaptations and changes in process steps, suppliers, and locations.


[ 50 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Appel, D.; Stricker, N.; Hennrich, H. & Herder, S. (2013), „Life Cycle Performance 4.0 - Strategische und technische Lösungen für den intelligenten Betrieb von Maschinen und Anlagen“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 2, S. 124-129.
Abstract:
Unter dem Begriff „Life Cycle Performance“ werden die Bewertung, Optimierung und Gestaltung von zuverlässigen und effizienten Systemen im Maschinen- und Anlagenbau über den gesamten Lebenszyklus verstanden [1]. Mit modernen Methoden der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik sind wesentliche Erleichterungen für Maschinenbetreiber sowohl im technischen als auch organisatorischen Umfeld erreichbar. Der Fachbeitrag geht dabei auf die strategischen sowie technischen Herausforderungen für den intelligenten Betrieb ein und stellt die bereits entwickelten Lösungsansätze im Umfeld des Trends "Industrie 4.0" vor.


[ 51 ] Lanza, G. & Brabandt, D. (2012), „A concept for inline quality assurance in the automated production of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP)“, Quality - Access to Success, S. 187-192.
Abstract:
Sustainable individual mobility can only be achieved by reducing the energy consumption and consequently the CO2 emissions. Solutions therefore can be found in the reduction of the motor cars moving mass. This is forced by the trend towards electric vehicles, the increasing safety and new comfort oriented functions. To achieve the aim of mass reduction, lightweight material design plays an important role. To exploit the entire potential of lightweight design, fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are also being considered by the automotive industry in addition to the traditional lightweight materials such as aluminium and magnesium alloys. However, due to the current low automation rate and high production costs especially carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) are not widely used. Especially the automation of the draping-process - the forming operation of semi-finished textiles - and the aligned quality assurance has to be developed. Imperfections, which occur in this process step, can influence the performance of the part in a significant way. At the moment, these defects are only detected at the end of the entire production, which leads to high costs caused by scrap. This paper provides an approach how inline metrology can be integrated into the production process. Hereby, the focus is set on the different measurement systems which are used for the detection of several kinds of defects as well as on the measurement strategy which is highly responsible for a time efficient measurement.


[ 52 ] Lanza, G.; Sauer, A. & Kölmel, A. (2013), „Planung einer wandlungsfähigen Batteriemontage“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Nr. 4, S. 281-284.
Abstract:
Bei der Elektrifizierung des Antriebsstrangs steht die kosteneffiziente Batterieproduktion im Fokus. Die ungewisse Marktentwicklung, die große Produktvielfalt sowie die unreife Li-Ionen-Technologie stellen besondere Herausforderungen der Elektromobilität dar. Zudem hängt die Lebensdauer der Batteriesysteme von der Fertigungsqualität ab. Daher ist ein qualitätsorientierter Planungsansatz für eine wandlungsfähige Batteriemontage erforderlich.


[ 53 ] Lanza, G.; Appel, D. & Stricker, N. (2013), „TCO 2.0 - Ein Weg zu mehr Transparenz und Kommunikation“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, S. 605-609.
Abstract:
Die zunehmend nachgefragten und oft aus Sicht der Hersteller schwer kalkulierbaren Bestandteile der TCO (Total Cost of Ownership)-Verträge bestehen aus verschiedenen Kostenblöcken, wobei die Instandhaltungs- und Energiekosten dominieren. Diese Kosten sind wesentlich vom individuellen Anwendungsfall abhängig. Um die Auswirkungen der verschiedenen Nutzungsprofile im TCO-Vertrag ausreichend berücksichtigen zu können, entwickelt das wbk zusammen mit Industriepartnern einen neuen transparenten und anwendbaren Standard, der auf Referenzklassen beruht.


[ 54 ] Lanza, G. & Häfner, B. (2013), „Datenfusion bei der Messung von Mikrozahnrädern“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, S. 841-846.
Abstract:
Mikrozahnräder sind wichtige Bauteile in vielfältigen innovativen Anwendungen. Die Computertomografie (CT) bietet aufgrund ihrer hohen Informationsdichte großes Potential für deren Qualitätssicherung. Der Fachartikel beschreibt eine Methode zur Genauigkeitssteigerung von CT-Messungen der Mikrozahnräder. Hierfür wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, bei dem die CT-Messdaten mit hochgenauen taktilen Messdaten fusioniert werden.


[ 55 ] Peters, S.; Jäger, K. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Ähnlichkeit von Produktionsprozessen bewerten - Eine Metrik für Produktionsprozesse der Brennstoffzellen- und Li-Ionen-Batteriezellenfertigung“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 7, S. 513-517.
Abstract:
Vorgestellt wird eine neuartige Metrik zum Vergleich von Produktionsprozessen bezüglich ihrer Ähnlichkeit und daraus abgeleitet hinsichtlich möglicher Synergie- und Integrationspotentiale. Nach einer Übersicht über den Stand der Technik veranschaulicht ein Beispiel aus der Automobilindustrie (Brennstoffzellen- und Li-Ionen-Batteriezellenfertigung) die Anwendbarkeit der Metrik.


[ 56 ] Lanza, G. & Moser, R. (2014), „Multi-objective optimization of global manufacturing networks taking intoaccount multi-dimensional uncertainty“, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, S. 397-400.
Abstract:
By designing global manufacturing networks still purely cost-based decisions are made, in which objectives such as delivery time, quality, flexibility, closeness to customer and coordination effort are neglected. The design and decision-making process becomes more complex, the more influencing factors of the business environment are considered. Due to the dynamic and uncertainty of these factors a decision support is required which includes all relationships in the network and its environment. This paper presents a dynamic multi-objective optimization model for global manufacturing networks, which evaluates the impact of changes of influencing factors and optimizes the global design of the manufacturing network.


[ 57 ] Stricker, N.; Loeper, O. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Bewertungskriterien von Rescheduling-Produktionsplänen“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, S. 230-233.
Abstract:
"Rescheduling" ist ein notwendiges Instrument der adaptiven Produktionsplanung und -steuerung. Der Fachartikel beschreibt eine Methode zur Bewertung und Auswahl verschiedener als Reaktion auf eine Störung erstellter Produktionspläne, unter Berücksichtigung aller durch das Rescheduling verursachter Aufwände. Hierfür wird ein Ansatz zur systematischen Identifizierung vorgestellt.


[ 58 ] Stricker, N.; Kopf, R. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Solving multi-criteria problems under risk: an approach explained using the example of rescheduling in dynamic environments“, Production Engineering, Nr. 4, S. 535-541.
Abstract:
There is a decent number of possible heuristic methods to solve an actual problem in production planning and control. Usually, each solving method leads to a different alternative. In dynamic production environments, decision makers often have to decide between uncertainty and risk. Making multi-criteria decisions under risk is a well-known problem. In this paper, we will consider rescheduling as an example for decision-making in a dynamic production environment. It is used to present an intelligent manufacturing approach for multi-criteria decisions under risk that combines a method for decisionmaking under risk and a multi-attribute decision-making method. Moreover, for frequently appearing problems, such as rescheduling, a procedure to evaluate the used solving methods is presented. We use this information to achieve a sustainable improvement for the solving procedure of future manufacturing problems.


[ 59 ] Peters, S.; Lanza, G.; Ni, J.; Xiaoning, J.; Pei-Yun, Y. & Colledani, M. (2014), „Automotive manufacturing technologies - an international viewpoint“, Manufacturing Review, S. 1-12.
Abstract:
The automotive industry can be described as a backbone in many developed countries such as Japan, Korea, USA, and Germany, while being an enabler for economic prosperity in developing countries like China, Brazil, Eastern Europe, and Russia at the same time. However, the dynamics and uncertainty are increasing heavily by market changes, regulations, customer behavior, and new product technologies. Manufacturing research has to find answers to increase quality of products, flexibility of plants, and supply chain networks, to manage complexity in technologies and variants and overall to stay competitive even in high wage countries. In this paper, major technological challenges are discussed and the current state of manufacturing technology and research is presented. Moreover, for each technological and organizational area, future industrial, and research challenges are highlighted.


[ 60 ] Greinacher, S.; Moser, E.; Hermann, H. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Schlank und ressourceneffizient produzieren“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Nr. 4, S. 231-237.
Abstract:
Neben den klassischen Zielgrößen Kosten, Zeit und Qualität sind Unternehmen zunehmend mit Forderungen nach Ressourceneffizienz (Energie, Material) und Verringerung von CO2-Emissionen konfrontiert. In aller Regel stellt die Wirtschaftlichkeit jedoch weiterhin das entscheidende Kriterium bei der Einführung „grüner“ Maßnahmen dar. Der Fachbeitrag beschreibt eine Methodik zur Planung und Bewertung von Maßnahmen zur wirtschaftlichen Gestaltung von Produktionssystemen unter Berücksichtigung „grüner“ Grenzwerte.


[ 61 ] Greinacher, S. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Optimisation of Lean and Green Strategy Deployment in Manufacturing Systems “, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Band 794, S. 478-485.
Abstract:
This optimisation approach focuses on the shop floor of a manufacturing company. It aims for an integrated lean and green assessment of a manufacturing system and the identification of a cost optimized combination of lean and green strategies with regard to green targets. For green assessment material and energy inputs as well as resulting CO2 emissions are taken into account. Lean assessment focuses on costs and throughput time. Potential lean and green strategies identified during top down analysis are integrated into a discrete event simulation model. This model is connected with optimisation heuristics which improve combined lean and green strategy deployment to the manufacturing system.


[ 62 ] Kippenbrock, K. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Prozessfähigkeitsuntersuchung mit Messunsicherheit“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 7, S. 555-559.
Abstract:
Prozessfähigkeitsuntersuchungen vergleichen die Verteilung eines Fertigungsprozesses mit den definierten Toleranzen eines Qualitätsmerkmals. Allerdings kann die Messunsicherheit die beobachtete Qualität des Fertigungsprozesses dabei erheblich beeinflussen. Um die Untersuchung von Prozessfähigkeiten in der diskreten Fertigung zu verbessern, wird die „Entfaltung“ als allgemeine Methode zur mathematischen Korrektur von systematischen und zufälligen Messabweichungen vorgeschlagen.


[ 63 ] Lanza, G.; Haefner, B. & Krämer, A. (2015), „Optimization of selective assembly and adaptive manufacturing by means of cyber-physical system based matching“, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, S. 399-402.
Abstract:
In high-tech production, companies often deal with the manufacturing of assemblies with quality requirements close to the technological limits. Selective and adaptive production systems are means to cope with this challenge. In this context new measurement technologies and IT-systems offer the opportunity to generate and use real-time quality data along the process chain and to control the production system adaptively. In this article, a holistic matching approach to optimize the performance of selective and adaptive assembly systems is presented and its industrial application within an automotive electric drive assembly is demonstrated.


[ 64 ] Kölmel, A.; Bareis, J.; Stefan, L.; Heinrich, A. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Detektion von Lufteinschlüssen bei der Kleberaupenapplikation - Entwicklung eines ultraschallbasierten Messkonzepts zur prozessintegrierten Bewertung von Kleberaupen“, tm - Technisches Messen, Band 11, S. 585-594.
Abstract:
Die Klebetechnik gewinnt als zukunftsträchtige, variabel einsetzbare Fügetechnik immer mehr an Bedeutung. Um Ausschuss zu vermeiden und Prozesse steuern zu können, müssen zerstörungsfreie Qualitätssicherungsmaßnahmen in die Prozessketten integriert werden. Ultraschallbasierte Messkonzepte bieten hierfür eine mögliche Lösung zur Detektion von qualitätskritischen Lufteinschlüssen bei der Applikation von Kleberaupen.


[ 65 ] Häfner, B.; Kölmel, A. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Planung des Einsatzes von Inline-Messtechnik“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, S. 787-792.
Abstract:
Bei unreifen Produktionstechnologien, wie der Batterieproduktion für elektromobile Anwendungen, ist eine geeignete Integration von Mess- und Prüftechnik in die Prozesskette von großer Relevanz. Der Fachartikel stellt einen Ansatz zur Planung der Prüfmittelallokation in einer Prozesskette vor. Die Methodik beruht auf der Kombination von Simulations- und Optimierungsverfahren.


[ 66 ] Peters, S.; Chun, J. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Digitalization of automotive industry - scenarios for future manufacturing“, Manufacturing Review, S. 1.
Abstract:
Among the current challenges to the global automotive industry are changes in global markets leading to product variety, regulation leading to pressure for new technologies in body and powertrain, and competition by new players such as huge information and communication technology companies. Automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) deal with these issues in different ways. This paper uses the scenario technique to illustrate possible answers to the question, how future value chains of automotive industry will look like. In almost all cases, Information and communication technology (ICT) plays a major role in future strategies to cope with the aforementioned challenges. On the one hand, ICT can boost the way to more efficient production of variants by utilizing smart manufacturing approaches, on the other hand ICT enables new features such as autonomous driving.


[ 67 ] Berger, D.; Brabandt, D. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Conception of a mobile climate simulation chamber for theinvestigation of the influences of harsh shop floor conditions onin-process measurement systems in machine tools“, Measurement Journal, Band 74, S. 233-237.
Abstract:
In-process measurements by machine tools offer high product quality, lower manufacturing costs, high productivity and a real-life assessment of product quality. Measurement errors of machine tools are influenced by complex environmental factors on the shop floor (e.g. temperature). The project ‘‘Traceable In-Process Dimensional Measurement’’ (TIM) aims for the ability to measure fabricated parts accurately in-process under the influence of the previously named factors. The development of a mobile climate simulation chamber is one of the work packages in this project and has the objective to simulate shop floor conditions to which a machine tool is exposed in its daily use. Based on the analysis of the variety of influencing factors, different concepts for the design of the mobile simulation chamber have been elaborated and the final concept was chosen. The validation of the final concept was supported by a computational fluid dynamics simulation and a modified temperature sensor distribution that is fit for the described purpose with regard to the mobility and thermal stability of the system.


[ 68 ] Lanza, G. & Sauer, A. (2012), „Simulation of Personnel Requirements during Production Ramp-Up“, Production Engineering Research and Development, S. 395-402.
Abstract:
Nowadays the number of product models constantly increases, due to a strong competition to innovate and the reduction of product life cycles, resulting in a more frequent occurrence of production ramp-ups. The production ramp-up combines the product development with the series production and has an impact on the market entry timing. In order to ensure an ideal ramp-up with new developed products being placed on the market as quickly as possible, there has to be an efficient use of existing resources, especially of human resources. Nevertheless, the planning of these resources turns out to be the most important challenge because it is directly related to a great uncertainty. The following article represents an approach that is being developed at the Institute of Production Science (wbk) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to optimize the forecast of the personnel requirements during ramp-up by taking into account the dynamic planning variables and organizational basic conditions. Therefore, a method will be developed that provides support to the responsible persons of the respective production ramp-up to calculate the necessary manpower for every single ramp-up phase and to realize the economic optimum. This method focuses on a simulation of the ramp-up process that allows an economically more efficient use of human resources.


[ 69 ] Lanza, G. & Brabandt, D. (2012), „Messtechnik für die FVK-Qualitätssicherung - Beschädigungen an Faserverbundkunststoffen mithilfe geeigneter Inline-Messtechnik vermeiden“, wt Werkstattstechnik online - Springer VDI Verlag, S. 783-788.
Abstract:
Die Auswahl der Inline-Messtechnik für das „Preforming“ von textilen Halbzeugen in der CFK (kohlenstofffaserverstärkter Kunststoff)-Fertigung ist an vielfältige Anforderungen geknüpft. Um die Bewertung der Messtechnik und somit den Auswahlprozess zu vereinfachen, wurden Prüfkörper entwickelt, die typische Imperfektionen und Preform-Geometrien abbilden.


[ 70 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Otter, M. & Elser, J. (2013), „Spatial alignment of joining partners without fixtures, based on component inherent markings“, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, S. 1-9.
Abstract:
Light-weight aluminum space frame structures are frequently used for small-volume products, suchas sports cars. The assembly of these products has so far been mainly manual and requires the use ofcomplex and expensive fixtures. To increase the profitability the research conducted at wbk Institute ofProduction Science is aiming to achieve an automated, fixtureless assembly of such structures by the useof industrial robots. To achieve the required accuracies regarding the alignment of the joining partners, anew approach based on component-inherent markings has been developed. Different tests have alreadybeen conducted in order to validate the approach. The test results demonstrate that the approach issuitable for the spatial alignment of components.This article describes the theoretical foundations of the required measurement approach as well as theexperimental results.


[ 71 ] Stecca, G.; Lanza, G. & Peters, S. (2013), „Optimization in Manufacturing“, CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering, S. 929-932.

[ 72 ] Stoll, J.; Kopf, R.; Schneider, J. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Criticality analysis of spare parts management: a multi-criteria classification regarding a cross-plant central warehouse strategy“, Production Engineering Research and Development, Nr. 2, S. 225-235.
Abstract:
Today an efficient warehouse and inventory management of spare parts for production machinery is essential for service organizations. Optimal strategies in procurement, stocking and supply play an important role for serviceability in spare parts management. In this context, individual item criticality should be considered, which describes how crucial a spare part is. This paper presents a three-dimensional classification approach for spare parts regarding a cross-plant central warehouse strategy of a service network. The approach uses two dimensions to estimate value and predictability of spare parts with aid of an ABC and XYZ analysis. The third dimension VED analyses a multi-criteria criticality classification and six feasible criteria are identified to describe item criticality. The methodology of the analysis is based on a decision tree, which represents the defined criteria by nodes. In addition, the analytic hierarchy process is used to solve the multi-criteria decision problems at the different nodes of the decision tree. The approach is developed in a Research project and evaluation of spare parts is performed based on real inventory and transaction data in cooperation with an industrial company. As a result 15,000 out of 50,000 items could be classified as suitable for central warehousing.


Referierte Beiträge bei wesentlichen Fachtagungen

[ 1 ] Spath, D.; Sternemann, K. & Lanza, G. (2001), „Supply Network Simulation“. Proceedings of CIRP 34th International Seminar on Manufacturing Systems, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 125-130.

[ 2 ] Spath, D.; Lanza, G. & Herm, M. (2002), „Simulation for dynamical Process Chains“. Modelling and simulation 2002, Hrsg. SCS Europe, S. 11-13.

[ 3 ] Spath, D.; Lanza, G. & Herm, M. (2001), „Multi Agent System for Multi Enterprise Scheduling“. Digital Enterprise Challenges, Hrsg. Kovács, G., S. 475-485.
Abstract:
‘Multi Enterprise Scheduling’ considers the temporal allocation of activities to resources. As soon as the specific targets and additional conditions have been achieved, the most suitable enterprise to execute the activity must be chosen. In the following article, the activity model presents the connections and logical sequence of the activities within the company overlapping business processes. The Organization units are identified in an Organizational and Resource Model. In the concept they are represented through Multi Agents, namely the Activity Agent and the Resource Agent. To meet the requirements of communication and cooperation across companies, it is attempted to implement this agent technology with web parts.


[ 4 ] Spath, D.; Armbruster, M.; Lanza, G. & Herm, M. (2002), „Web Services - The New Multi Agents“. Proceedings of the SCI 2002, Hrsg. International Institute of Informatics and Systemics (IIIS).

[ 5 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G. & Ender, T. (2005), „OEE Simulation in Production Ramp-up“. Tagungsband Industrial Simulation Conference 2005, S. 173-178.
Abstract:
~~;1mp-up of a new production system has become a decisive factor influencing protit. The reason is an incessanlly growing product range with conslantly decreasing life cycles therefore ramp-ups have to become more efticient and faster. Characteristic for nunp-up processes are instable business pwcesses, leading to a !arge number of quality problems. The approach of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) simulation presented in this paper allows simulating the inslabte state of a procluction system during ramp-up. Thus, tbe production planncr is supported cluring ramp-up planning and the actual ramp-up period. Using OEE Simulation the planner can identify deviations from the target ramp-up cprve at an early stage.


[ 6 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G. & Ender, T. (2005), „Simulation von qualitätskritischen Geschäftsprozessen im Produktionsanlauf“. Karlsruher Simulationssymposium, S. 1-20.

[ 7 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G. & Ender, T. (2005), „A time-variant quality prognosis ramp-up simulation model“. International PACE Forum Digital Manufacturing, Hrsg. PACE, S. 1-4.
Abstract:
Production ramp-up has become one of the most decisive factor influencing profit and market share of a new product. The big challenge in production ramp-up is to reach the planned output by reducing time and costs. Over the last years product range is increasing and life cycle of the products is decreasing. This circumstance makes a controlled production ramp-up more difficult and therefore more and more ramp-ups are running out of their financial budgets and their time schedules. One of the most important influences on time and money is the quality development during production rampups. The ability to control the quality while increasing the output is the key success factor for an effective ramp-up [1]. In this paper a method is introduced which allows a quality prognosis during production ramp-ups by using simulation methods. This simulation model is based on business-processes and supports the ramp-up manager to forecast qualityrates and machine availability during the production ramp-up. Thus this tool can support the ramp-up team to stay within their financial budgets and time schedules.


[ 8 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G. & Schlipf, M. (2006), „Statistical Quality Assurance in High Precision Engineering“. Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, S. 430-433.
Abstract:
The core challenge of an industrially applicable and economic production of wear resistant micro components and systems is the establishment of both robust and flexible manufacturing process chains. In order to guarantee those stable micro chains manufacturing processes have to be controlled and continuously improved by an effective and fast interfering operational quality assurance. The key instrument of an operational quality assurance consists in controlling the manufacturing processes via control charts. Due to the stochastic performance of micro process chains new types of quality control charts adapted to micro production constraints such as measurement uncertainty have to be developed and are discussed in the following.


[ 9 ] Lanza, G.; Fleischer, J. & Ender, T. (2006), „Modeling of Quality Development during Production Ramp-up by Elementary Processes“. S. 505-510.
Abstract:
Due to dramatically reduced development times and product-life-cycles the control of production ramp-up isan important criterion for the companies' success. The aim of the shown research project sponsored by theGerman Research Foundation (DFG) is the optimization of ramp-up, by developing a solution method whichallows a quality-simulation of the instable production processes during ramp-up. To achieve this, the expecteddevelopment of the quality-capability of the instable production-processes will be anticipated by the exampleof metal cutting manufacturing. Based on standardized elementary processes, the developed simulation forecaststhe capability of the production-system and the variable needs of resources during ramp-up.


[ 10 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Schlipf, M.; Kotschenreuther, J. & Peters, J. (2006), „Process parameter analysis on surface roughness and process forces in micro cutting“. Second International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacturing - Proceedings, S. 289-292.
Abstract:
High precision engineering has a great technological potential regarding the manufacturing of micro technical products. In this field micro cutting is due to its flexibility and the possibility to produce complex three dimensional geometries in a broad variety of different materials of special importance. However, milling and turning in micro dimensions follow special rules caused by size-effects. Successful micro cutting depends on reliable processes and therefore on the knowledge about parameter adjustments and process characterization. By means of micro cutting test series and statistical analyses effects and interactions of process parameter variations for work piece material, cutting edge radii, cutting speed, and depth of cut were identified and mathematical quantified. The results show a significant influence of the mentioned factors on the response variables. Therefore, a linear model for specific cutting force and surface roughness is proposed. Furthermore, the findings are compared to the empirical cutting model of Victor-Kienzle in macro dimensions.


[ 11 ] Lanza, G. & Ude, J. (2006), „A concept for the configuration of value added networks based on quality capabilities during ramp-up“. Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP Sponsored Conference on Digital Enterprise Technology, Hrsg. Springer US, S. 393-400.
Abstract:
The ubiquitous globalization, which opens up new markets with their specific local conditions and labor costs, as well as the increasing pressure regarding time, costs and flexibility lead to the decentralization of the value added. The resulting global value added networks, consisting of company-owned and external sites as well as logistic partners, have to be configured, operated and optimized. An important criterion for these networks is their ability to a fast and efficient ramp-up. This article presents a concept to assess and select potential value added network’s nodes (sites or external partners) according to their ramp-up performance to achieve an optimal configuration of the network.


[ 12 ] Lanza, G.; Fleischer, J. & Ender, T. (2007), „A Simulation based Resource Planning Model for Production Ramp-ups“. Proceedings of the 40th CIRP International Seminar on Manufacturing Systems, S. 1-40.
Abstract:
Decreasing product life-cycles and resulting market pressure to launch newproducts in continuously decreasing time intervals are describing today’sautomotive industry [1]. Therefore production ramp-ups are gaining more andmore importance. Production ramp-ups are characterized by new products, newproduction technology and instable business processes. One main problem toachieve planned output and efficiency targets is the availability of human andtechnical resources during production ramp-up. In this paper, a new simulationbased resource planning method for production ramp-ups is introduced. Themethod supports resource planning during production ramp-up based on businessprocesses,quality of production processes and operational availability ofmachinery. Next to theory a prototypical implementation and simulation results arepresented. This research project is sponsored by the German Research Foundation(DFG).


[ 13 ] Lanza, G.; Fleischer, J. & Schlipf, M. (2007), „Qualitätssicherung für Mikrofertigungsprozesse und urgeformte Mikrobauteile“. Kolloquium Mikroproduktion, S. 121-127.
Abstract:
Die wesentliche Herausforderung für eine industriell umsetzbare Mikroproduktion ist die Entwicklung robuster und flexibler Fertigungsprozesse. Um Robustheit und Flexibilität auch in Mikrodimensionen zu realisieren, müssen die Fertigungsprozesse durch eine schnelle, fertigungsnahe und den mikrospezifischen Besonderheiten entsprechende Qualitätssicherung kontinuierlich geregelt und verbessert werden. Bisher sind Mikrofertigungsprozesse durch eine hohe Variabilität aufgrund der höheren Anzahl signifikanter Einflussfaktoren bestimmt. Darüber hinaus liegen die Toleranzanforderungen mikrostrukturierter Bauteile im Mikro- und Submikrometerbereich, was höchste Genauigkeitsanforderungen an die Messverfahren stellt. Um Mikrofertigungsprozesse basierend auf Messdaten zu regeln, muss der erhöhten Bedeutung der Messunsicherheit und der Messstreuung im Vergleich zu den geforderten Toleranzen Rechnung getragen werden. Messdaten zeigen dabei immer eine Überlagerung von Fertigungs- und Messstreuung, die im Falle höchster Toleranzanforderungen zu falschen Entscheidungen bezüglich der Annahme oder Ablehnung von Bauteilen führen kann. Daher liegt der Fokus der vorliegenden Forschungsarbeit im Rahmen des SFB 499 auf der kontinuierlichen Überwachung, Regelung und Trennung von Fertigungs- und Messstreuung mit Hilfe statistischer Werkzeuge. Es wird sowohl ein neuartiges Qualitätsregelkarten-Design als auch ein Regelkreis zur Kombination von Statistischer Prozessregelung und Statistischer Modellierung, welche im Rahmen des SFB 499 entwickelt wurde, vorgestellt und diskutiert. Der vorliegende Artikel schließt mit ersten Ergebnissen über den Einsatz der statistischen Werkzeuge im mikroproduktionstechnischen Umfeld.


[ 14 ] Lanza, G. & Ude, J. (2007), „Configuration of dynamic value added networks“. Proceedings of the 4th International CIRP-Sponsored Conference on Digital Enterprise Technology, Hrsg. Sage, S. 561-570.
Abstract:
Globally operating companies face the challenge of an optimal and efficient configuration of their value added network. The participating sites, partners and suppliers have to be selected according to their specific capabilities. Thereby the configuration has to respect not only the actual status but also the different dynamic influences of the nodes of the network themselves but also of the connections between them. This article presents an approach for the configuration of global value added networks using Business Capabilities with special consideration of the ramp-up behaviour of the single elements.


[ 15 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Ude, J.; Sternemann, K.; Herm, M. & Homann, T. (2007), „Capability-Oriented Configuration of global Value Added Networks“. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium, S. 40-53.
Abstract:
This article describes a concept for the configuration of global Value Added Networks based on Business Capabilities. Business Capabilities are used to describe the planned added value and the abilities of the existing nodes (own sites or partners) within the network, without having to define used technologies and resources. A matching of Business Capabilities needed for the planned added value and of Business Capabilities provided by potential nodes, allows an assignment of added value content to these nodes. On node level and thereby decentralized the Business Capabilities can be combined with suitable technologies and resources. This combination is defined as Value Added Module. By composing needed Business Capabilities or Value Added Modules, different network alternatives can be configured and compared. These alternatives of the Value Added Network can be evaluated based upon a predefined target system. The article presents the concept of Business Capabilities and an outlook to a supporting IT-solution.


[ 16 ] Lanza, G.; Fleischer, J. & Schlipf, M. (2007), „Statistical Process and Measurement Control for Micro Production“. Conference Proceedings 7th International Workshop on High-Aspect-Ratio Micro-Structure Technology (HARMST), Hrsg. Springer, S. 145-146.
Abstract:
The core challenge of an industrially applicable and economic production of wear resistant micro components and systems is the establishment of both robust and flexible manufacturing process chains. In order to guarantee those stable process chains, manufacturing processes have to be controlled and continuously improved by an effective and fast interfering operational quality assurance that is adapted to the micro-specific framework. Since tolerances of micro-structured parts are in the micro- and sub-micrometer range, geometric measurement results have to meet high requirements in terms of precision and reliability. Therefore, in order to control manufacturing processes in micro production based on measurement data the increased importance of measurement uncertainty and measurement variation has to be considered. Measurement data show an interference of measurement and manufacturing distribution and can lead to wrong decisions when deciding whether the micro manufacturing process is in or out of control. Thus, the focus of the paper lies on continuously monitoring, controlling and separating measurement and manufacturing variation in a flexible, simple and reliable manner. Therefore, a new type of a multivariate µ-EWMA control chart developed at wbk is discussed and benchmarked with traditional control charts. The paper concludes with first results of the application of the multivariate µ-EWMA chart in micro production environment.


[ 17 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Peters, J. & Viering, B. (2008), „Application of statistical resampling techniques on CMM point clouds“. Conference Proceedings 10th Anniversary International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (EUSPEN), Hrsg. Euspen, S. 280-284.
Abstract:
The paper shows the application of the statistical resampling technique called "TheJackknife" to compute uncertainties of measurement results in coordinate metrology,introduced by the reduction of a point cloud to an ideal substitute geometry. Inaddition, a method is proposed which uses the computed Jackknife data to analyze theinfluence of single touch points on the measurement result. Exemplary, the procedureis applied to a point cloud of a 2-dimensional circle.


[ 18 ] Lanza, G. & Peters, J. (2008), „Challenges and user support in micro coordinate metrology“. Proceedings of 1st International F25 User Meeting.
Abstract:
For the measurement of micro mechanical workpieces multi-sensor coordinate measurement machines are widely used due to their flexibility. Because of this flexibility many decisions regarding the measurement strategy have to be made. The planning process demands a lot of knowledge and experience from the user. This is especially true for the measurement of micro structures, since many effects need to be considered. In this talk challenges in micro coordinate metrology and solutions to support the user during the planning process are presented.


[ 19 ] Albers, A.; Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Deigendesch, T. & Viering, B. (2010), „Prediction of Functionality and Long-term Performance of Microgears“. Conference Proceedings 10th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (EUSPEN), S. 270-274.
Abstract:
This paper outlines a threefold methodological approach integrating dimensional measurement, virtual tests of measured real gears and physical tests of real gears. As a demonstrator for the presented methodology high-loadable microgears made of zirconium oxide are used.


[ 20 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Kotschenreuther, J.; Schlipf, M.; Deuchert, M. & Smiljkovic, S. (2008), „Model-based Control of Surface Quality with regard to Micro Cutting Processes“. Conference Proceedings 3rd International Conference on CIRP High Performance Cutting, S. 775-784.
Abstract:
Due to the higher number of significant influencing factors (microstructure, temperature etc.), micro manufacturing processes are subject to higher variability than processes in the macro range. With regard to micro cutting, the roundness of the cutting edge and microstructure properties of the machined material have a great impact on the achievable surface quality. In case of sequential removal the cutting process affects surface layers that, other than the base material, are already hardened from a former removal process. Only traditional control charts will detect process shifts (e.g. caused by material inhomogeneities) but cannot take care of continuous process improvement. Therefore, a control loop that adaptively adjusts the process parameters to the changed surrounding conditions for each cycle is required. By using an extended Victor-Kienzle model, the improvement in surface quality through control of the cutting force, cutting edge radius and cutting speed is shown empirically.


[ 21 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G. & Peter, K. (2008), „Quantified Interdependencies between Lean Methods and Production Figures in the Small Series Production“. Conference Proceedings MS 2008, Hrsg. Springer, S. 89-92.
Abstract:
Small and medium-sized companies encounter enormous difficulties when trying to implement so-called lean methods according to the role model of the Toyota Production System. This is caused by the varying effects of lean methods on production figures depending on the production conditions concerning product variety and volumes, variation of process and set-up times etc. Thus, there are no general guidelines for the “best possible” implementation of these methods in a small series production. This article shows an approach to analyze and evaluate the influence of lean methods in small series productions based on quantified interdependencies with the relevant production figures.


[ 22 ] Lanza, G. & Weiler, S. (2008), „Conception of a Methodology for a Comprehensive Procurement Market Selection for Low-Cost Country Sourcing“. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium, Hrsg. University of Cambrigde, S. 1-23.
Abstract:
This paper describes a methodology for comprehensive procurement market selection for sourcing from low-cost countries. The basic novelty of this approach consists in allocating potential procurement markets for specific procurement objects matching the capabilities and requirements of the buying company in question. The methodology includes four major steps: First, profiles of the potential procurement markets, the objects to be purchased and the buying company are generated. Then, the interdependencies and cause-effect relationships of the criteria of these three profiles are analysed. Afterwards, the allocation is completed by two comparisons based on the delta values of each criterion of procurement market and object and procurement market and company, respectively. This serves to verify the congruence between market and company and between market and procurement object. Finally, the countries are ranked by procurement object suitability and company suitability.


[ 23 ] Lanza, G. & Weiler, S. (2008), „Effektive Auswahl und Qualifizierung eines chinesischen Lieferanten“. Hrsg. VDMA, S. 1-34.

[ 24 ] Lanza, G.; Werner, P. & Niggeschmidt, S. (2009), „Behavior of Dynamic Preventive Maintenance Optimization for Machine Tools“. Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, 2009. RAMS 2009. Annual , Hrsg. IEEE (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Egenineers), IEEE Operations Center, S. 315.
Abstract:
This paper presents an approach to the dynamic optimization of the preventive maintenance schedule for machine tool components during operation based on the actual operating life and the respective load profile. Therefore, a stochastic model based on the Weibull Cumulative Damage Generalized Log-Linear Model and the Monte Carlo Simulation is used. Furthermore, the effect of the dynamic optimization on component selection for different maintenance strategies is taken into consideration. The ideal strategy can be selected from corrective, preventive and condition-based maintenance for every component of acomplex system.


[ 25 ] Lanza, G.; Werner, P. & Niggeschmidt, S. (2009), „Adapted Reliability Prediction by Integrating Mechanical Load Impacts“. Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, 2009. RAMS 2009. Annual , Hrsg. IEEE (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Egenineers), IEEE Operations Center, S. 83-88.
Abstract:
A high and constant machine reliability in combinationwith low life cycle cost is the key challenge for today’sproduction. Equipping highly integrated production facilitieswith robust components and monitoring functions combinedwith the applicable technical services contributes significantlyto guaranteeing machine reliability. In this context, bindingreliability predictions are demanded within the scope ofreliability-based warranty contracts, life cycle cost-driven bidsor service contracts. This article presents an approach whichaims at analyzing and predicting the reliability of machinesand their components depending on load that is applied. Thisresearch focuses on fatigue failures, caused in componentsunder the influence of fluctuating loads. However, the mainmethodology can be applied with some modifications to otherfailure modes as well. By integrating suitable methods andinformation from different sources, this approach helps toachieve a more accurate reliability analysis and predictionwhen very little field data is available. This reduces themanufacturer’s risks arising from the aforementionedcontracts. Additionally, the operators of production facilitiesgain a greater level of certainty in production planning, in thescheduling of preventive maintenance activities and inplanning the provision and storage of necessary spare parts.


[ 26 ] Lanza, G.; Peter, K. & Broos, A. (2008), „Quantitative analysis and optimization of the effectivenessof lean methods in small batch production“. Proceedings of 5th Weimar Optimization and Stochastic Days, Hrsg. Dynardo GmbH, S. 1-9.
Abstract:
In order to stay competitive in the globalizing markets with fast changing conditions and requirements, small and medium sized enterprises aim to implement methods and tools of the lean production philosophy, which already lead to enormous efficiency improvements in large companies. But these lean methods cannot easily be transferred as they have a different impact on the production system depending on the existing circumstances. The analysis and quantification of these interdependencies is subject of the current research work at the Institute of Production Science (wbk) in Karlsruhe. Using material flow simulation and parametric optimization, efficient combinations of lean methods for small batch productions can be determined under consideration of different target systems. This approach of the simulation-based optimization of small batch productions applying lean methods is explained in the following article.


[ 27 ] Lanza, G.; Weiler, S. & Vogt, S. (2009), „Design for Low-Cost Country Sourcing: Motivation, Basic Principles and Design Guidelines“. Proceedings of the 19th CIRP Design Conference – Competitive Design, Hrsg. Cranfield University, S. 229-236.
Abstract:
Not every product can be successfully sourced in low-cost countries. Disadvantageous cost structures or extremely complex workpiece designs are the most frequent reasons for failures. A design that has been tailored to low-cost country sourcing offers the possibility of increasing potentials while reducing risks and costs at the same time. The wbk Institute of Production Science at the Universität Karlsruhe (TH) developed a new approach which ensures that the product design meets the requirements of the supplier. This paper identifies the factors influencing the design, deduces basic principles and illustrates guidelines for an adapted product design.


[ 28 ] Lanza, G. & Peters, J. (2009), „Impact of workpiece shape deviations on the evaluation process in coordinate metrology“. Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Tolerancing, Hrsg. CIRP, S. 1-6.
Abstract:
In coordinate metrology results are based on a set of probed points from the workpiece surface, which are evaluated with the use of ideal substitute geometries. Shape deviations of the workpiece lead to non-uniform influence of single points on the result. In the article, a method to analyze the influence of single measurement points on the result and to compute the uncertainty of the evaluation is proposed. The statistical resampling technique -The Jackknife- is adapted for use with CMM point clouds. This technique allows the bias and standard error of the measurand to be estimated. The outcome is analyzed with computer simulations, whose results are presented in this article.


[ 29 ] Lanza, G. & Weiler, S. (2009), „Selection of Procurement Objects for Low-Cost Country Sourcing “. Proceedings of 18th Annual IPSERA Conference, S. 1229-1245.
Abstract:
Many companies decide to opt for procurement markets of low-cost countries hoping to benefit from considerable regional differences in factor costs and from lower wages in particular. But not every procurement object can be successfully purchased from low-cost countries. In many cases, the procuring companies are faced with quality issues or costs way beyond the estimate. The outcome mostly depends on the technical characteristics of the respective product. This is a main challenge of low-cost country sourcing resulting from a poor selection of procurement objects. The basic novel approach developed at the Institute of Production Science (wbk) of the Universität Karlsruhe (TH) consists in the identification of factors affecting the selection of procurement objects. These factors are then used as a basis for the development of principles for the selection of procurement objects offering the best potential in terms of quality and project outcome when sourced from low-cost countries.


[ 30 ] Lanza, G. & Niggeschmidt, S. (2009), „Reliability Based Spare Parts Provision for the Machine Building Industry via Adapted Service Life Prediction“. ARS - 2009 Europe Symposium Proceedings , Hrsg. ReliaSoft Corporation, S. 2-4.
Abstract:
According to recent investigations the sale of spare parts is a considerable key business in the after-sales market. In the machine building industry the profit margins of the service and spare parts business exceed the classical product business by a factor of ten. To reduce the probability of cost-intensive breakdowns a constant availability of spare parts is necessary. The earning potentials in the after-sales market can only be exploited if customers are supplied with specific spare parts within stipulated reaction times. However especially in the machine building industry, the factors that influence the demand forecast of spare parts are diverse. The high number of models and variants of the machines and the simultaneously small number of sold units complicate an accurate prediction. Furthermore, the service life of single components is influenced to a great extend by different and variable loads depending on the production processes. Hence, most companies have to maintain high and expensive spare parts inventories to assure a certain availability. The presented approach aims at analyzing and predicting the service life of components depending on the load that is applied. This information is combined with logistic aspects such as delivery times or stock strategies. By using the approach, it is possible to predict the demand of spare parts more accurately. Cost optimal strategies for the provision of spare parts can be developed and evaluated. This helps companies to reduce their expensive inventories of spare parts.


[ 31 ] Lanza, G. & Werner, P. (2009), „Statistical Method for the Estimation of Operational Conditions in Mixed Failure Data of Production Equipment“. ARS - 2009 Europe Symposium Proceedings, Hrsg. ReliaSoft Corporation, S. 2-11.
Abstract:
Manufacturers increasingly integrate the suppliers of their production equipment into their maintenance activities in order to improve the reliability and availability of their machinery. This forces suppliers to increase their knowledge of the failure behavior of their products. However, the failure data delivered to them by their customers often lacks information about the operational conditions of the machine tools. Since these operational conditions are highly variable and have a large impact on the reliability of the machines, it is important to gain knowledge of them. The approach being presented uses the Mixed Weibull and the Cumulative Damage models to estimate the different operational conditions from mixed failure data and uses field data collected from a machine tool component.


[ 32 ] Lanza, G. & Niggeschmidt, S. (2009), „Ausfallgerechte Ersatzteilbereitstellung im Maschinen- und Anlagenbau mittels adaptiver Lebensdauerprognose“. Entwicklung und Betrieb zuverlässiger Produkte, Hrsg. VDI Wissensforum GmbH, VDI Verlag GmbH, S. 111-122.
Abstract:
Aufgrund steigender Kundenanforderungen und kürzer werdender Produktinnovationszyklen wachsen die Teilevielfalt und damit die Komplexität der Ersatzteilversorgung im Maschinen- und Anlagenbau zunehmend an. Häufige Folgen dieser Entwicklung sind Überbestände, hohe Kapitalbindungskosten und teure Verschrottungsaktionen, um hohe Fehlmengenkosten und Konventionalstrafen bei Produktionsausfällen zu vermeiden. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es notwendig, die Lebensdauer hochwertiger Komponente in Abhängigkeit ihrer betriebsbedingten Belastungen zu ermitteln, um rechtzeitig das geeignete Ersatzteil bei einem Ausfall bereitstellen zu können. Im Rahmen eines umfassenden Ersatzteilmanagements ermöglicht die ausfallgerechte Bereitstellung von bestimmten Ersatzteilen eine hohe Ersatzteildisponibilität bei gleichzeitiger Realisierung von Einsparpotentialen.


[ 33 ] Lanza, G. & Ude, J. (2009), „Integrated Evaluation of Value Added Networks - A Concept incorporating Dynamics, Uncertainty and Multi-dimensional Target Systems“. Proceedings of 42nd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 22-26.
Abstract:
Due to increasing globalization, customer demands and resource constraints companies are facing growing time, cost and flexibility pressures. This forces them to enter into new forms of organization and cooperation: Value Added Networks consisting of different locations of one company but also including external partners and suppliers are emerging. The challenge is to configure these production networks, to run them economically and to identify and realize potentials for optimization. This article describes an integrated concept for the evaluation of these Value Added Network alternatives to find the best, robust solution for the network configuration concerning the implied dynamics and uncertainties. Therefore a target system consisting of relevant objectives like cost, time, quality or flexibility has to be identified. This target system has to conform to the strategy of the configured Value Added Network (e.g. quality, cost or time leadership). As these targets can be contradictory, methods for multi-criteria optimization have to be applied. To reach a high robustness of the network the approach combines a Monte-Carlo simulation and sensitivity analyses to assess and quantify the possible influences.


[ 34 ] Lanza, G. & Peters, J. (2009), „Evaluation of probing errors based on a point cloud analysis in coordinate metrology“. Proceedings of the 9th euspen International Conference, Hrsg. Euspen, S. 203-206.
Abstract:
This research introduces a method to identify shape deviations of the workpiece and errors in the probing process in coordinate metrology by analyzing the observed measurement points. The approach is based on the statistical analysis of distances between points in the point cloud. Furthermore, the influence of single measurement points is taken into account by quantifying their effect on the result. In the article, the method is explained thoroughly and its application with actual measurement data from a micro-structured workpiece is presented.


[ 35 ] Lanza, G.; Weiler, S. & Stoehr, A. (2009), „Valuation of the Development of Low-Cost Country Suppliers“. Proceedings of 42nd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 48.
Abstract:
Realizing cost saving potentials represents one of the main motives of low-cost country sourcing. The development and qualification of suitable suppliers in these countries though is an expensive and long-term process. Furthermore, low-cost country sourcing incurs higher risks than procuring in the home country as exchange rates, wages and transport costs as well as material costs are subject to changes. The development of a supplier relationship in a low-cost country therefore carries investment risks and can be considered a multi-stage investment project with uncertainties. This article is aimed at the representation of a model developed at the wbk Institute of Production Science, Universität Karlsruhe (TH), for the investment-oriented valuation of supplier development expenditure in low-cost countries on the basis of the real option theory.


[ 36 ] Lanza, G.; Rühl, J. E. & Werner, P. (2009), „Stochastic methods for flexibility evaluations of production systems“. Proceedings of CIRP 16th International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 401-406.
Abstract:
Mere cost appraisals and flexibility assessments will no longer suffice to design and plan production systems over their life cycle. In addition, the effect of influencing factors subject to indeterminate variations needs to be included the evaluation, and their impact on production costs is to be made transparent. To achieve a better planning basis in the future, the influence of uncertainties must be reduced and at the same time the prognosis exactness of the calculated costs must be improved. For a superior illustration of the influence of uncertainties, a purely deterministic approach is no longer effectual. Hence, the flexibility and, therefore, the resistance of a production system to market and product specific changes are determined stochastically within this article.


[ 37 ] Lanza, G. & Viering, B. (2009), „Quality Assurance of Micro Gears via Three-Dimensional Surface Characterization“. Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Tolerancing, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 1-5.
Abstract:
A challenging task for a systematic quality assurance is the characterization of micro gears via metrology. Additional factors in micrometer dimensions such as significant shape deviations of the produced micro gears increase the complexity. This paper describes an approach for a three-dimensional surface characterization of the tooth flanks of micro gears. A three-dimensional point of view defines the functionally relevant tooth flanks as a surface in contrast to the common definition via two-dimensional characteristics. Additionally, this paper describes how these flank characterizations will then be used for matching micro gears afflicted with shape deviations for functioning gearings.


[ 38 ] Lanza, G.; Albers, A.; Viering, B. & Becke, C. (2009), „Interrelationship of Micro Dimensional Metrology and Micro Functional Testing for the Quality Assurance of Micro Gears“. Proceedings of the 9th euspen International Conference, Hrsg. Euspen, S. 187-190.
Abstract:
In this paper results concerning the quality of micro gears made via dimensional metrology and functional testing are discussed and compared. Thus, possible effects of geometrical deviations on the function can be identified and possible interrelations between standard characteristics like profile deviations and the tangential composite deviation can be indicated and analyzed.


[ 39 ] Munzinger, C.; Lanza, G.; Köhler, G.; Schneider, M.; Ruch, D. & Ochs, A. (2009), „Process Chain for the Flexible Production of Curved Extrusion Profiles“. Proceedings of 2nd International Researchers Symposium 2009 on Innovative Production Machines and Systems, S. 1-6.
Abstract:
The collaborative research centre SFB/TR10 is developing and setting up a prototypical process chain for the flexible production and machining of three dimensionally curved extrusion profiles. This paper presents the the process chain and the ongoing research activities aiming to increase the accuracy of the contour of the manufactured profiles.


[ 40 ] Lanza, G. & Peter, K. (2009), „Simulation-based Quantification of Interdependencies between Lean Methods and Production Figures“. Proceedings of 16th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 2-7.
Abstract:
More and more companies are using lean production methods in order to improve their processes and stay competitive. Due to the fact that lean methods have different impacts on production systems depending on existing characteristics and conditions, they have to be successfully adapted to the specific requirements. This paper shows a transparent structure of interdependencies between lean methods and relevant production figures developed at the Institute of Production Science (wbk), Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany. Besides, it discusses a methodology for the simulation-based analysis and optimization of production systems by lean methods serving as forecasting tool for an efficient planning process.


[ 41 ] Lanza, G. & Rühl, J. E. (2009), „Performance evaluation of production systems in the early stage of the product development“. Proceedings of 3th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual Production, Hrsg. Herbert Utz Verlag, S. 961-972.
Abstract:
The requests for production systems are changing constantly as a consequence of increasing competitive pressure. Hence, evaluation methods are becoming more and more important. In addition, the effect of influencing factors subject to indeterminate variations needs to be included in the evaluation, and their impact on production costs is to be made transparent. The flexibility and, therefore, the robustness of a production system to market and product specific changes are essential for the economic success of a company. Especially in the early stage of the product development the knowledge about the required flexibility of a production system is of utmost importance. Within this approach an evaluation method is illustrated which allows a quantitative assessment of the flexibility in the early planning stages.


[ 42 ] Lanza, G.; Schlipf, M. & Kippenbrock, K. (2009), „Innovative quality assurance strategies for the characterization of dimensionalfeatures of micromechanical components“. Proceedings of 4M/ICOMM 2009 - The Global Conference on Micro Manufacture, Hrsg. BIAS - Verlag, S. 187-190.
Abstract:
How and where in micromanufacturing process chains the functionally relevant dimensional features of micromechanical components are measured and with which measuring devices is a problem with which manufacturers currently have little experience solving. The goal of this paper is to present a method for determining the optimal quality control plan to assure the quality of dimensional features of micromechanical components with respect to the scrap rate of the production process, the type I and type II errors of the inspection process and the necessary time and cost of inspections. The aforementioned criteria on which the selection of the optimal quality control plan is based are detailed and an object-oriented model of the manufacturing process chain is presented in this paper. Due to the combinatorial nature of this problem and the desire to consider the multiple objectives independently, a population-based metaheuristic approach is proposed to search for the set of Pareto optimal quality control plans with respect to the defined objectives.


[ 43 ] Lanza, G.; Werner, P. & Niggeschmidt, S. (2009), „Life Cycle Performance als wesentliches Qualitätsmerkmal von Investitionsgütern“. FQS-Band 80 - 09 Erfolgsfaktor Qualität - 20 Jahre FQS, Hrsg. FQS Forschungsgemeinschaft Qualität e.V., S. 134-144.
Abstract:
Geprägt durch den zunehmenden Wettbewerb fordern die Kunden des Maschinen- und Anlagenbaus verstärkt die Garantie ausgewählter Produktleistungsparameter (wie z.B. Zuverlässigkeit und Verfügbarkeit) sowie bestimmter Lebenszykluskostenelemente als wesentliche Qualitätsmerkmale von Investitionsgütern. Dies bietet den Maschinenherstellern die Chance, den höheren Preis der eigenen Produkte im Vergleich zu den Konkurrenzprodukten aus low-cost Ländern durch die Objektivierung der Produktleistung zu rechtfertigen. Aufgrund des hochkomplexen Ausfallverhaltens produktionstechnischer Maschinen und Anlagen birgt die Garantie derartiger Qualitäts- und Leistungsparameter allerdings große Risiken für die zumeist kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen (KMU) der Branche. Ziel des Projektes myLCP (Skalierbare Life Cycle Performance-Prognoseverfahren für den Maschinen- und Anlagenbau) ist es daher, für die Hersteller von Maschinen und Anlagen wissenschaftliche und anwendbare Methoden für die Analyse, Prognose sowie Steuerung der Leistung und der Kosten produktionstechnischer Anlagen (der sogen. Life Cycle Performance) zu entwickeln. Herausforderungen bestehen vor allem hinsichtlich der stochastischen Natur der Zuverlässigkeit technischer Systeme, der Modellierung der Maschinenbelastung sowie der mathematischen Bestimmung des Abschätzungsfehlers von Zuverlässigkeitsprognosen. Diesen Herausforderungen stellt sich ein Forschungskonsortium, bestehend aus vier kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen des Maschinen- und Anlagenbaus, dem Institut für Produktionstechnik (wbk) und der Forschungsgemeinschaft Qualität e.V. (FQS).


[ 44 ] Lanza, G.; Schlipf, M. & Kippenbrock, K. (2009), „Mikroprozesskettengerechte Qualitätssicherung: statistische Prozessregelung und Qualitätssicherung mikromechanischer Bauteile“. Tagungsband 4. Kolloquium Mikroproduktion, Hrsg. F. Vollertsen, BIAS Verlag, S. 133-142.
Abstract:
Die Qualitätssicherung mikromechanischer Bauteile sieht sich drei zentralen Herausforderungen gegenüber: eine hohe Prozessvariabilität, die Überlagerung von Fertigungs- und Messprozessstreuung und die Unkenntnis der optimalen Prüfstrategie entlang der Produktionsprozesskette. Zur Bewältigung dieser Herausforderungen werden drei Methoden vorgestellt. Die hohe Prozessvariabilität eines einzelnen Fertigungsprozesses wird durch einen modellbasierten prädiktiven Regler reduziert. Die Trennung von Fertigungs- und Messstreuung für eine statistische Prozesskontrolle wird durch ein neues multivariates Qualitätsregelkartendesign ermöglicht. Darüberhinaus werden Richtlinien zur Erstellung einer mikroprozesskettenoptimalen Prüfstrategie durch Axiomatic Design entwickelt. Um diese Richtlinien zu verifizieren und um neue Erkenntnisse zu gewinnen, werden die Ergebnisse mit denen einer multikriteriellen Optimierung der Prüfstrategie verglichen.


[ 45 ] Lanza, G. & Weiler, S. (2010), „Product Design for Global Production“. Proceedings of 20th CIRP Design Conference, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 1-7.
Abstract:
A global set-up of production sites and suppliers in an increasingly globalised world provides huge opportunities for companies, such as the development of new markets or the reduction of production costs. In spite of these advantages and the desire of companies to make full use of them, global production has not been mastered so far and its potential has not yet been fully tapped. Global production often results in quality issues or unexpectedly high costs. The technical features of the product to be manufactured have a major impact on whether global production will be successful or not. This article aims at presenting an approach to tapping the potential of low-cost countries by tailoring product design to local needs and, at the same time, to reducing entrepreneurial risks.


[ 46 ] Lanza, G. & Werner, P. (2010), „Quantification of Risks Arising from Low Data Availability in Extended Warranty and Preventive Maintenance“. Proceedings of International Applied Reliability Symposium Europe 2010, S. 2-6.
Abstract:
Due to the increasing demand for extended warranties and the increasing popularity of preventive maintenance for investment goods, the importance of dependable reliability figures has increased. Reliability figures tend to be more dependable when more failure data are used to obtain them. The low availability of data, however, is a key problem in reliability analysis in the investment goods industry. Reliability figures obtained from only a small amount of failure data can be given only with uncertainty. This uncertainty needs to be assessed. In this presentation a method will be shown that uses the parameter confidence and a Monte Carlo simulation to quantify the risks that arise from this uncertainty. Furthermore, it is shown how this method can be integrated in warranty prognosis and the optimization of preventive maintenance for investment goods.


[ 47 ] Lanza, G.; Weiler, S. & Mall, P. (2010), „Procurement Structures for Low-Cost Country Sourcing“. Proceedings of the 20th Annual North American Research and Teaching Symposium on Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, S. 1-11.
Abstract:
Low-cost country sourcing (LCCS) offers the opportunity to considerably save costs and enter new attractive markets. In order to tap the potential of low-cost country sourcing successfully, the barriers and challenges coming with it need to be systematically specified and the procurement structures must be oriented towards LCCS. This paper will analyze and categorize the barriers and challenges which are given in literature. Based on this literary analysis, this paper will give recommendations on how to implement different aspects of low-cost country sourcing. The results of a practical example from industry will finally be presented. As part of this, a company’s strengths and weaknesses with regards to LCCS were analyzed by using a checklist which was developed based on these recommendations.


[ 48 ] Niggeschmidt, S.; Helu, M.; Diaz, N.; Behmann, B.; Lanza, G. & Dornfeld, D. (2010), „Integrating green and sustainability aspects into life cycle performance evaluation“. Proceedings of 17th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering (LCE 2010), Hrsg. Institute of Green Design and Manufacturing Engineering, S. 366-371.
Abstract:
Recently, an increasing number of customers of the machine tool industry have applied life cycle costing (LCC) to compare the cost-effectiveness of different investment options. These concepts have mainly been used to address maintenance costs since these have proven to be one of the most important cost drivers. The approach of life cycle performance (LCP) broadens LCC by considering the relationship between the costs and benefits of a machine over its entire life cycle. With the increasing importance of environmental consciousness, it has become crucial to incorporate environmental impact when evaluating machines. A framework is presented that enables the integration of green manufacturing principles into LCP-evaluation. The role of interoperability within this framework is also discussed.


[ 49 ] Lanza, G.; Weiler, S. & Möhlmann, J. (2010), „Use of the real options analysis to valuate new supplier development - a South Korean case study“. Proceedings of 43rd CIRP International Conference on Manufacturing Systems, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 137-144.
Abstract:
The development of a new supplier relationship in a low-cost country carries investment risks and can be considered a multi-stage investment project with uncertainties. In turn, the buying company can make use of its flexibility within the project, e.g. exit the supplier development at certain stages to save further investments. This paper presents a real options model developed at the wbk Institute of Production Science to valuate a supplier development under risks and flexibility. Due to a continuous valuation in the presented methodology the forecast uncertainty is decreased significantly. Finally, the methodology is validated by a case study which illustrates a supplier development in South Korea by a global OEM.


[ 50 ] Lanza, G.; Peters, J. & Kippenbrock, K. (2010), „Experience-based user support system for the measurement of micro-mechanical parts“. Proceedings of 10th International Conference on the European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, Hrsg. Euspen, S. 100-103.
Abstract:
The selection of a suitable measurement strategy for micro-dimensional quality features is a task which requires considerable expertise and experience. To aid technicians with the appropriate selection of a sensor and its parameter settings for a given measurement task, this article presents an experience-based user support system. The structure of the system’s backbone, a relational database, as well as the interaction of the technician with the system is described. The support system can lead to improved measurement results while also decreasing the necessary time and effort for the inspection planning process.


[ 51 ] Lanza, G.; Albers, A.; Viering, B. & Becke, C. (2010), „Matching of micro gears via dimensional metrology and functional testing“. Proceedings of 10th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, Hrsg. Euspen, S. 51-54.
Abstract:
Micro gears are characterized by shape deviations caused by micro manufacturing processes, which operate close to physical limits. This paper presents an approach to match micro gears which are afflicted with shape deviations. The approach consists of a geometrical part that couples the dimensional characterization of the tooth flank of a micro gear with a matching simulation and a functional part in which functionally relevant characteristics are derived from functional testing.


[ 52 ] Lanza, G.; Werner, P. & Behmann, B. (2010), „Prognosis of machine tool warranty costs considering arising risks through weak data sets and unknown load profiles“. Reliability, Risk and Safety: Back to the Future, Hrsg. European Safety and Reliability Association, CRC Press - Taylor & Francis Group, S. 1014-1018.
Abstract:
Today, etended warranties are increasingly popular in the machine tools industry. But weak failure data and time varying loads make it difficult for machine tool manufacturers to estimate the costs and the risks of such warranties. This paper presents a methodology to determine the Value at Risk of warranties for machine tools considering weak data sets and unknown load profiles. The methodology uses random parameters obtained by different sampling methods to simulate the warranty costs using Monte Carlo simulation. As result, the Value at Risk of the warranty for a certain probability is determined.


[ 53 ] Lanza, G.; Behmann, B. & Werner, P. (2010), „Enhancement of the serviceability in the machine and plant industry“. Proceedings of APMS- International Conference on Advances Production Management Systems, Poliscript - Politecnico di Milano, S. 1-8.
Abstract:
The provision of technical services in machine and plant engineering is a profitable field of business for the provider. However, if ambitious availability promises are made, the expenses required in future to deliver the technical service can only be projected with a high level of uncertainty. This paper presents an approach that shows how the serviceability of a service provider for the maintenance of technical components can be evaluated with low levels of uncertainty, and how the resources used to provide the service can be optimized. The result consists in the determination of a serviceability which represents the correlation between the required resources and the number of identical components in the field. It is derived from the times of service provision, which are adapted to the actual operating and load behavior of the components and takes the sustainable planning and optimization of resources for the respective times of service activities into consideration.


[ 54 ] Lanza, G. & Viering, B. (2010), „Proposal of a Cylindrical Standard to Evaluate the Uncertainty of Measurement for Micro Gear Measurements“. Proceedings of 10th International Symposium on Measurement and Quality Control 2010, S. 1-4.
Abstract:
The demand to simultaneously increase the functionality of devices while decreasing their size and weight continuously offers new fields of application for devices like micro gear drives. To fulfill this demand micro gear drives must continue to become smaller and more accurate. This requires, in addition to stable micro manufacturing processes, a quality assurance of the parts of micro gear drives. A main challenge within the use of micro metrology is the estimation of the uncertainty of measurement of the measurement task to be fulfilled. This article describes an approach for a workpiece resembling standard for experimentally estimating the uncertainty of measurement for micro gears. It shows why such a micro gear standard is required. Additionally, the article identifies demands on such a standard. Also, a proposal for the structure and the shape of the standard is presented. This includes fabrication possibilities and the choice of appropriate material. Essential components of the standard are cylindrical geometries to determine the uncertainty of measurement of the characterization of the profile deviation, helix deviation, and pitch deviation. Also, the increasingly recognized importance of entire tooth flanks for the function of the gear is considered for the proposed standard. Therefore, the standard embodies the surface of an involute tooth flank with the help of the cylindrical geometries to enable the characterization of the entire tooth flank surface. Furthermore, probing strategies for actual measurements with the standard are discussed. The article concludes with a presentation of future work on the micro gear standard.


[ 55 ] Nordsiek, D.; Gausemeier, J.; Lanza, G. & Peters, S. (2010), „Early Evaluation of Manufacturing Costs within an Integrative Design of Product and Production System“. Proceedings of APMS 2010 International Conference - Advances Production Management Systems, Hrsg. Poliscript - Politecnico di Milano, S. 288-295.
Abstract:
The prevailing market and competitive situation requires companies to develop and produce their products fast and cost-effective. To accelerate the development of a new product and its production system a holistic design methodology is developed. Moreover the methodology contains methods which enable decision makers to calculate manufacturing costs per unit and to estimate uncertainties in early planning stages. The developed methods will be implemented in software tools and combined in one common IT infrastructure to guarantee an easy access and a broad acceptance in industrial companies. The methodology and the appendent software tools are developed within the collaborative research project VireS - Virtual synchronization of product development and production system development. First results have been tested at industry partners and are described in this paper.


[ 56 ] Lanza, G. & Peters, S. (2010), „Produktionstechnik für zukünftige Automobile“. Konferenzband zum 1. Technologietag der e-mobil BW, Hrsg. e-mobil BW GmbH, S. 1-25.
Abstract:
Die Automobilindustrie steht vor einem grundlegenden Wandel. Um die weltweite Führungsrolle der deutschen Automobilindustrie zu sichern, muss neben der Entwicklung innovativer Konzepte vor allem die zugehörige Produktionstechnik vorangetrieben werden. Der Vortrag identifiziert wesentliche Herausforderungen und beleuchtet die Aktivitätsfelder Verbrennungsmotor, Elektroantrieb, Speichertechnik und Leichtbau aus produktionstechnischer Sicht. Skalierbarkeit und Flexibilität der Werkzeuge, Anlagen und Fabriken sowie eine neuartige Interdisziplinariat in F&E lassen sich dabei als Schlüsselelemente identifizieren.


[ 57 ] Lanza, G.; Peter, K.; Peters, S. & Rühl, J. E. (2010), „Simulation zur Kosten- und Risikobewertung von Produktionsszenarien“. Integrationsaspekte der Simulation: Technik, Organisation und Personal, Hrsg. KIT Scientific Publishing, KIT Scientific Publishing, S. 469-476.
Abstract:
The increase in the number of product variants is one of the most important challenges of the industry today. It effects almost all departments of a company and is an important cost driver. Therefore, the overall aim of a company is to achieve an optimal degree of flexibility over the whole life cycle of a production system. In early planning stages however the quality and quantity of data is very poor and uncertainties about quantities and variants are challenging. So far appropriate analyses of costs per parts and as a consequence a monetary based decision between possible production system designs cannot be done. Within the framework of the collaborative research project VireS a scientific approach to evaluate different production scenarios in early planning stages was developed and implemented by the Institute of Production Science (wbk) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Using a simulation tool called F-One costs can be calculated depending on ranges of quantities and variants taking different kinds of uncertainties into account.


[ 58 ] Grallert, S.; Don, F.; Lanza, G.; Moser, R.; Shi, Y. & Ude, J. (2010), „Configuring the right Global Manufacturing Network - Comparison of two practical processes“. Proceedings of 15th Annual Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium, S. 1-24.
Abstract:
This paper presents two processes for the reconfiguration of global manufacturing networks - one has been developed in Cambridge and one in Karlsruhe. The processes are based on different research contributions and have been tested and refined in industrial companies. In this paper similarities and differences of the two approaches are identified. Cambridge’s process tends to take a strategic view and covers a wider range of considerations. It focuses more on the design of network options than on the assessment of these alternatives. Karlsruhe’s process addresses a smaller range of considerations, but takes a more detailed point of view. The assessment and test of robustness is focused and carried out with ophisticated mathematical tools. A toolbox of concepts is developed and it is highlighted that company’s characteristics must be integrated to find a fitting process. Possibilities how both processes might support each other and opportunities for further research are discussed.


[ 59 ] Lanza, G. & Book, J. (2010), „Modellierung und Simulation von Wertschöpfungsnetzwerken unter Berücksichtigung realer Entscheidungsstrukturen durch die Verwendung von Software-Agenten“. Integrationsaspekte der Simulation: Technik, Organisation und Personal, Hrsg. ifab - Institut für Arbeitswissenschaft und Fabrikorganisation, S. 389-396.
Abstract:
Production in international value-added networks is becoming increasingly important. Companies have to handle and control numerous production sites and suppliers of different regional and cultural background to maintain key success factors as for instance cost and quality. To support companies in planning and controlling their value-added networks an approach for the simulation of production networks under consideration of different target systems for each unit in the network, like production plants, suppliers and also relevant decision makers, was developed at the wbk Institute for Production Science. The unconsidered influences during the implementation phase of network configurations developed with existing simulation and optimization tools are in focus of the approach. Therefore, the simulation model integrates realistic hierarchies, organizational borders and individual target systems.


[ 60 ] Peter, K. & Lanza, G. (2010), „Synergetic Evaluation of the Performance of Production Systems“. Proceedings of 60th CIRP General Assembly, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 1-7.

[ 61 ] Lanza, G. & Peters, S. (2011), „A Contribution to the Stochastic, Dynamic Optimization of Production Systems“. Proceedings of CIRP Production Systems and Organization Scientific Technical Committee, Hrsg. CIRP Production Systems and Organization, S. T. C..
Abstract:
Decision makers in production planning are challenged by volatile markets and the uncertainties coming along with them. In the presented approach an analytical model of a manufacturing system is defined which takes into account manifold aspects like different routes for each product, stocks, buffers and down-times. Based on this model the manufacturing system is optimized by a Markovian Decision Process. This dynamic, stochastic optimization helps to find cost minimal reactions to uncertain changes in the markets using capacity adaptations, changes in process steps and in locations.


[ 62 ] Lanza, G.; Werner, P.; Behmann, B. & Appel, D. (2011), „Warranty cost improvement of machine tools during the bidding process and operation“. Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), 2011 Proceedings - Annual , Hrsg. IEEE, S. 1-5.
Abstract:
In the last decade, reliability improvement warranties(RIW) became increasingly popular with customers of machine tool manufacturers especially in the automotive industry. These RIWs include long term warranties (for up to 10 years) for reliability figures like the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF). The long warranty period, the stochastic nature of reliability, unknown operational conditions and uncertainties regarding the reliability parameters of a component bear the risk of cost through high recourses due to low reliability. The paper shows approaches to lower the risks of high recourses in the bidding process and during operation of machine tools. The methods described in the paper are based on statistical failure analysis with the Weibull distribution and Monte Carlo simulation based warranty prognosis. It is shown that with a good knowledge of the infield reliability of their products, machine tool manufacturers have opportunities to not only calculate but also to lower risks of reliability improvement warranties.


[ 63 ] Lanza, G. & Weiler, S. (2010), „Product Design for Global Production“. Proceedings of the 20th CIRP Design Conference, Hrsg. Springer, Springer-Verlag, S. 403-412.
Abstract:
A global set-up of production sites and suppliers in an increasingly globalised world provides huge opportunities for companies, such as the development of new markets or the reduction of production costs. In spite of these advantages and the desire of companies to make full use of them, global production has not been mastered so far and its potential has not yet been fully tapped. Global production often results in quality issues or unexpectedly high costs. The technical features of the product to be manufactured have a major impact on whether global production will be successful or not. This article aims at presenting an approach to tapping the potential of low-cost countries by tailoring product design to local needs and, at the same time, to reducing entrepreneurial risks.


[ 64 ] Lanza, G.; Appel, D. & Werner, P. (2011), „How Can Machine Tool and Plant Manufacturers Increase the Trustability of the Needed Reliability Figures?“. Proceedings of The International Applied Reliability Symposium Europe, Hrsg. ReliaSoft Corporation, S. 1-43.
Abstract:
Large manufacturing companies demand reliability and availability warranties from their machine tool and plant suppliers. For these suppliers, however, the estimation of these figures is challenging. The challenges include sparse data availability due to short product life-cycles, low production volumes and high variance of different products, as well as the effect of different operating conditions on reliability. This presentation will show a practical methodology with which these companies can estimate increasingly trustworthy reliability figures. Furthermore, it will propose a method for assessing the trustability of the figures.


[ 65 ] Helu, M.; Rühl, J. E.; Dornfeld, D.; Werner, P. & Lanza, G. (2011), „Evaluating Trade-offs Between Sustainability, Performance, and Cost of Green Machining Technologies“. Proceedings of the 18th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Hrsg. Springer, S. 195-200.
Abstract:
The growing demand to reduce environmental impacts has encouraged manufacturers to pursue various green manufacturing technologies and strategies. These solutions, though, may have a direct impact on several productivity metrics including availability, quality, service life, and cost. This study presents an approach to evaluate the trade-offs between the environmental, performance, and financial impacts of green machining technologies by combining green manufacturing principles into life cycle performance evaluation. The approach is validated by investigating the implications of reducing the processing time by increasing the cutting speed and chip load to green a horizontal milling process.


[ 66 ] Lanza, G.; Werner, P.; Appel, D. & Behmann, B. (2011), „Increased Trustability of Reliability Prognoses for Machine Tools“. Proceedings of 18th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Hrsg. Springer, S. 225-228.
Abstract:
The estimation of trustable reliability figures for machine tools is a considerable challenge. The main reasons are the sparse availability of relevant components’ lifetime data as well as the load-dependence of reliability. The proposed paper presents a method to estimate increasingly trustable load-dependent reliability figures for machine tools using design information to estimate the reliability if no field data is given, service knowledge of an existing service department which monitors field maintenance of the products and documented field data of spare parts sales, service and maintenance activities.


[ 67 ] Lanza, G.; Jondral, A. & Book, J. (2011), „Capability Assessment and Valuation of the Implementation of Lean Production Methods in Turbulent Environments“. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production , Hrsg. Springer, Springer, S. 524-529.
Abstract:
The majority of industrial companies has implemented lean production methods to reduce costs and faulty parts, as well as to meet production deadlines. In order to justify the efforts of such an implementation or the adaptation of production systems in a changing, turbulent business environment, approaches forecasting the success with respect to costs including well-known interdependencies of lean production methods are needed. This paper presents a four-step approach that initially assesses the capability of certain lean production methods, simulates and valuates the effects of such an implementation, and hedges the lean advanced production system against a volatile environment. Using the proposed approach industrial companies are capable of both assessing increased performance with the help of lean production methods monetarily and of identifying thresholds indicating needed adaptation of a production system.


[ 68 ] Herrmann, H.; Eckstein, J.; Lanza, G.; Peters, S.; Behmann, B. & Roth, J. (2011), „Anwendung von Axiomatic Design zur Entwicklung von Wärmetauschersystemen“. Tagungsband 8. Paderborner Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme, Hrsg. Heinz Nixdorf Institut, S. 123-132.
Abstract:
Zur Steigerung der Effizienz bei der Einführung neuer Produkte sowie zur Beherrschung der entstehenden Produktvielfalt müssen Produktentwicklung und Produktionssystemplanung frühzeitig synchronisiert werden. Dadurch wird versucht, das Spannungsfeld zwischen Qualität, Kosten und Zeit in eine ausgewogene Balance zu bringen. Mit Hilfe der Methode Axiomatic Design wird der Entwicklungsprozess effizient strukturiert. Um unterschiedliche Produktionssystemkonzepte frühzeitig vergleichen und bewerten zu können, ist eine Analyse des Kostenverhaltens im Hinblick auf Schwankungen der prognostizierten Absatzmengen der einzelnen Produkte von hoher Bedeutung. Neben der Entscheidungsunterstützung bei der Produkt- und Produktionssystemplanung dient eine genaue Kenntnis der Herstellkosten zur Absicherung von strategischen Markt- und Preisentscheidungen. Zulieferer müssen darüber hinaus Jahre vor Produktionsbeginn verbindliche Preiszusagen abgeben, so dass eine möglichst genaue Kenntnis der Herstellkosten zum entscheidenden Wettbewerbsvorteil werden kann.


[ 69 ] Lanza, G.; Behmann, B.; Werner, P. & Vöhringer, S. (2011), „Simulation of Life Cycle Costs of a Product Service System“. Functional Thinking for Value Creation, Hrsg. Springer, Springer, S. 159-164.
Abstract:
Concerning Industrial Product Service Systems (IPS2) in machine engineering, the challenge for the supplier exists in the determination of the expenses for the provision of the included services over the life cycle of the IPS2 before the start of contract. Thus, in this paper an approach is presented which explains how a supplier of an IPS2, which consists of a machine together with a warranty of availability, can determine his expenses for the warranty. In doing so, the underlying actual operating- and load-dependent failure behavior is taken into account to estimate the supplier´s serviceability to provide the warranty.


[ 70 ] Lanza, G.; Fleischer, J.; Viering, B.; Klimscha, K.; Kippenbrock, K. & Stockey, S. (2011), „Data Mining Approach for Identifying Optimal Process Parameters in Micro-Manufacturing“. Proceedings of 11th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, Hrsg. European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, Sieca Repro, S. 467-470.
Abstract:
Micro-manufacturing processes are often characterized by unknown correlations between process parameters and quality characteristics. Due to the large amount of process data a systematic approach is needed. This paper describes an approach to use data mining methods on production data from micro manufacturing processes. A micro powder injection molding process is used as an example to validate the approach and the results of an initial analysis are presented.


[ 71 ] Lanza, G.; Albers, A.; Kippenbrock, K. & Börsting, P. (2011), „Support for Micro-Tolerancing through the Feedback of Existing Quality-Related Data to Product Developers“. Proceedings of 11th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, Hrsg. European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, Sieca Repro, S. 542-545.
Abstract:
This paper presents a new approach for the Micro Product Engineering Process (µPEP), in which manufacturing data from previously designed and manufactured microsystems is used to aid the tolerancing of new design projects. An existing database of historical production data from the SFB499 was thus adapted to grant tolerance-oriented instead of part-oriented production knowledge access. The new approach was then applied on development of a micro gas turbine.


[ 72 ] Lanza, G.; Schulze, V.; Stockey, S. & Chlipala, M. (2011), „Manufacturing and Quality Assurance of Micro Structured Crankshaft Bearings“. Proceedings of 11th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, Hrsg. European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, Sieca Repro, S. 183-186.
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the manufacturing of microstructures for the enhancement of friction loaded surfaces of a crankshaft. The studied structures are presented and an approach for the quality assurance of the microstructures is explained. This approach is based on the assessment of the neighbourhood distances between the single measurement points within a measurement point cloud and the application of edge detection to classify the detected form deviations.


[ 73 ] Lanza, G. & Peters, S. (2011), „Produktionstechnik: Enabler der Elektromobilität“. Tagungsband VDMA Tagung: Elektromobilität und die Montage- und Handhabungstechnik, Hrsg. VDMA, S. 1-22.

[ 74 ] Lanza, G. & Peters, S. (2011), „Dynamic Optimization of Manufacturing Systems to Minimize Life Cycle Costs“. Proceedings of 44th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems - New Worlds of Manufacturing, Hrsg. Springer, S. 1-6.
Abstract:
This paper presents an approach which supports decision making in production planning with uncertainties. In current research there is no integrated view of the strategic planning of production networks and the operational planning of processes within a plant. Consequently this approach consists of two steps. First, the manufacturing costs of units in an embedded manufacturing system are analytically calculated based on queueing theory. As a second step, a Markovian Decision Process is solved to find cost minimal reactions to volatile markets for the optimization of the manufacturing system due to capacity adaptations, changes in process steps, and locations.


[ 75 ] Lanza, G.; Stockey, S. & Ertel, A. (2011), „Quality Assurance in the Production of Semi-Finished SMC and BMC“. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium of Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments 2011, Hrsg. KAIST - Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, S. 211.
Abstract:
Fiber-reinforced plastics like sheet molding (SMC) or bulk molding compounds (BMC) offer the ability to reduce the overall weight of products for individual as well as public transportation concepts like motorcars, buses and trains without decreasing passenger safety. A fundamental obstacle on the way to lightweight mobility can be seen in the total production costs of fiber-reinforced plastics. Beside the continued automation of the production processes, advanced quality assurance also offers several chances for contributing to cost reduction efforts. The first approach presented in this paper should focus on the avoidance of producing scrap by providing a systematic method for the quality assessment of produced semi finished SMC/BMC batches. This assessment is processed by the calculation of a quality index and its transformation into the degree of fulfillment. Based on the degree of fulfillment, it can be determined if the produced semi-finished SMC/BMC batch is deliverable to the customer (or to the next process step).


[ 76 ] Lanza, G. & Behmann, B. (2011), „Advanced steps to optimize the serviceability“. Proceedings of Advances Production Management Systems (APMS), Hrsg. Springer, Springer.
Abstract:
To provide high-class quality technical services to machine and plant clients, machine producers must provide abundant service resources enable adherence to service agreements. Therefore, this paper defines a dynamic characteristic of the serviceability and shows a method how this characteristic can be predicted and optimized through a simulation of the reliability of machine components. In addition, the implementation of a software package is described and a subsequent case study is presented, that employs the methodology and the simulation of the derived serviceability calculation.


[ 77 ] Lanza, G.; Kippenbrock, K. & Kuhn, G. (2010), „Process Capability Indices for the Evaluation of Micro-Manufacturing Processes“. Proceedings of 7th CIRP International Conference on Intelligent Computation Manufacturing Engineering, Hrsg. Springer, S. 1-4.
Abstract:
This paper discusses the effects of measurement uncertainty on part inspection and process evaluation, which is especially important for quality assurance in micro-manufacturing. In order to incorporate the effects of measurement uncertainty on process evaluation, the wbk Institute of Production Science has developed two new process capability indices, cpu and cpku, which are adapted from the cp and cpk indices by adjusting the tolerance range according to the expanded uncertainty of measurement. By doing so, the cpu and cpku indices provide a holistic approach to micro-manufacturing capability in which both the production process and the measurement process are considered as essential elements contributing to the final quality of the product.


[ 78 ] Albers, A.; Lanza, G.; Turki, T.; Hoppen, P.; Troll, D. & Kippenbrock, K. (2011), „Validierung von Mikrokomponenten und -systemen durch Simulationen und Prüfstandsversuche“. KIT Scientific Reports 7591, Hrsg. KIT Scientific Publishing, S. 97-104.
Abstract:
Die Entwicklung, Produktion und Qualitätssicherung urgeformter, mikromechanischer Bauteile und Systeme bewegt sich außerhalb existierender Normen und Richtlinien. Daher ist es wichtig dem Konstrukteur Gestaltungshilfen bereitzustellen, da valide Grundlagen zur Gestaltung dieser Bauteile fehlen. Durch die Fertigungsverfahren weisen die Bauteile, bezogen auf ihre Größe, hohe geometrische Abweichungen auf. Diese stammen u. a. von unterschiedlicher Schrumpfung der Endbauteile durch das Sintern. Im Bereich der Qualitätssicherung können Prüf- und Messverfahren aus dem Makrobereich nicht ohne weiteres für den Mikrobereich herunterskaliert werden. Demzufolge ist es zur Unterstützung des Konstrukteurs wichtig, angepasste bzw. neue Methoden bereit zu stellen, die Aussagen über die Funktionsfähigkeit des zu entwickelnden Systems schon in frühen Phasen der Produktentwicklung erlauben. Diese Probleme können auch mittels Simulation gelöst werden, wenn diese die während des gesamten Entstehungsprozesses entstandenen geometrischen Abweichungen berücksichtigt.


[ 79 ] Lanza, G.; Book, J. & Jondral, A. (2011), „Modeling and Simulation of Quality Control Strategies in Value-Added-Networksunder Consideration of Individual Target Systems and Product Characteristics Using Software Agents“. Proceedings of 44th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, Hrsg. Springer.
Abstract:
Due to decreasing in-house production depth, industrial companies are becoming part of an increasingly large supply-chain. To maintain product quality and to protect the company against image problems, crosscompany quality management is becoming a key success factor. Since the applicable approach depends on factors like the power of the single actors in the supply-chain, individual target systems, and product characteristics, companies have to find an individually fitted quality strategy for their supply-chain. Therefore, a supply-chain model was implemented that simulates the influence of quality problems from tier-n suppliers on company results and the controllability of suppliers by quality management measures using software agents.


[ 80 ] Lanza, G. & Book, J. (2011), „Modeling and Simulation of Value Added Networks under Consideration of Individual Target Systems using Software Agents“. Proceedings of ICPR 21, Hrsg. Fraunhofer-Verlag, Fraunhofer-Verlag.
Abstract:
Since every company has its own performance targets, the individual interest in achieving high punctuality of delivery dates and in controlling other influencing factors like fulfillment of quality requirements may vary between the supply-chain entities. To maintain high delivery punctuality and eliminate delays due to quality issues, cross-company balancing of target discrepancies and quality management is becoming a key success factor. Given that an applicable approach depends on factors like the power of the single actors in the network, individual target systems, and product characteristics, companies have to find an individually fitted strategy to control their supply-chain. Therefore, an agent-based supply-chain model was implemented to simulate the behavior of supply-chain entities related to their target systems, the influence of quality problems from tiern suppliers on company results and the controllability of suppliers by incentives and quality management measures.


[ 81 ] Lanza, G. & Sauer, A. (2011), „Ramp-Up Optimization by Process Simulation“. Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Ramp-up Management .

[ 82 ] Peters, S.; Lanza, G. & Stockey, S. (2012), „Effects of future mobility on automotive production“. Proceedings of 12th Stuttgart International Symposium - Automotive and Engine Technology 2012, Hrsg. ATZlive, Springer Vieweg, S. 457-466.
Abstract:
Due to the rising technological variety, complexity increases which cannot be met by today’s approaches of flexible and versatile systems. Furthermore, it can be supposed that in the future today’s usual quantities in series production will not be achieved for all kinds of drive trains and that for this reason some powertrain components might be produced below a “critical” quantity. Technological variety and dynamics require flexibility of scales and beyond that high modularity in order to be able to react to modified process steps by means of product- or production-related innovations.


[ 83 ] Lanza, G. & Appel, D. (2012), „Economic Potential of Reliability Data in the Application of Spare Part Provision“. Proceedings of International Applied Reliability Symposium - Europe 2012, Hrsg. ReliaSoft Corporation, S. 1-44.
Abstract:
In order to position yourself successfully in the market of machine tools and plants, it is important to gain an advantage over your competition by using novel concepts in the service sector, for example the spare part provision strategies. The proprietary service structure must therefore be assessable. An effective adduction therefore requires a well-grounded planning methodology that facilitates economic progress. This presentation shows a systematic and practical approach to spare part provision at optimal cost, which is based on the structural data of the machines in the field, their operation conditions and their failure data. Through statistical reliability analysis and the integration of load impacts, a more precise prognosis of the spare parts demand can be achieved. The resulting choice of the optimal spare part provision strategy forms the essential part of the presented methodology.


[ 84 ] Lanza, G. & Book, J. (2012), „Quality Strategies for Supply Chains“. Proceedings of Global Conference on Operations and Supply ChaManagement (GCOM 2012), S. 1-15.
Abstract:
Due to the decreasing in-house production depth and the ongoing trend to internationalization, manufacturing companies are becoming a part of increasingly large supply chains. As a result, the influence of the individual companies on the quality of their products decreases. As quality is one of the key success factors for a manufacturing company,cross-company quality management is becoming more important. To assure quality in the supply chains, an applicable approach depends on several factors like product characteristics, the power of the single actors in the supply chain as well as the supply chain members’ individual target systems. Thus, companies need to identify an individually fitted quality strategy for their supply chain in a systematic way. Therefore, a holistic method has been developed to identify relevant quality parameters for a specific company systematically. The method is based on an agent-based simulation model that simulates the impact of quality problems from tier-n suppliers on a company´s results as well as provides the controllability of suppliers with the help of several quality management measures by consideringtheir individual target systems.


[ 85 ] Lanza, G. & Ruhrmann, S. (2012), „Methodological Approach to Evaluate Product Adaptations based on Real Options“. Proceedings of The 22nd CIRP Design Conference, Hrsg. Springer, Springer, S. 227-237.
Abstract:
Global business activities of companies grow continuously because cost savings must be achieved and new markets must be tapped into. Today’s companies face the challenge to either satisfy local markets with their existing product portfolio or to develop locally adapted products. These products must not only be adjusted to the individual requirements of the customer but must also realise cost reduction potentials. Such an investment project in the form of product adaptations has to be calculated and evaluated at an early stage. This paper presents an approach to use the real option analysis in order to include uncertainties and flexibility during the development phase. Using this approach industrial companies are capable to identify the cause and effect relationships between product design and production technology adaptations, to calculate the costs of these adaptations and to evaluate the investment project regarding uncertainties and flexibility.


[ 86 ] Lanza, G. & Ruhrmann, S. (2012), „Evaluating Procurement Objects and Suppliers in Low-Cost Countries with a Focus on Quality“. Proceedings of IPSERA Conference - Purchasing & Supply Management a Changing World, Hrsg. Emilio Esposito, Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane S.p.A., S. 57.
Abstract:
Integral, global sourcing processes covering everything from procurement portfolio analysis to supplier development for qualification as a series supplier provide companies with a solid basis to capitalise on cost-based and competitive advantages. The approach developed at wbk Institute of Production Science is particularly suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Using the approach, companies will be able to select low-cost country (LCC) procurement objects based on quality criteria and to evaluate LCC supplier development on a dynamical basis. Within the Global Sourcing Process for LCC, the strategic planning process determines the optimal configuration of the three fields of action - procurement object, procurement market and the company’s own abilities. After a procurement object at a particular procurement market is chosen, the dynamic evaluation of the supplier’s qualification determines the monetary advantage of an investment within this supplier cooperation.


[ 87 ] Lanza, G. & Moser, R. (2012), „Strategic planning of global changeable production networks“. Procedia CIRP, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 291-297.
Abstract:
By focusing on core competencies and the utilization of international location advantages such as access to low-wage labor and local sales markets, global production networks are becoming increasingly complex. The key for control is a changeable production network that can change within preconceived solution spaces for the dynamic challenges. The presented article describes an approach for the strategic planning of global changeable production networks, based on future scenarios and a multi-objective optimization to identify the most favorable network configuration. The final result is a production network, which can be changed into network alternatives to control dynamics and positively utilize globalization.


[ 88 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Brabandt, D. & Wagner, H. (2012), „Overcoming the challenges of automated preforming of semi-finished textiles“. SAMPE Europe Symposium 2012 (SEMAT 12): Symposium on Automation of Advanced Composites and its Technology, Hrsg. SAMPE Europe, S. 114-143.
Abstract:
Sustainable individual mobility can only be achieved by reducing the CO2 emissions. Solutions therefore can be found in the reduction of the moving mass of the entire system. The demand for weight reduction is not a challenge that is only considered because of the trend towards the development of electric vehicles. Weight reduction is also forced by new regulations by the EU and other countries which aim to reduce CO2 emissions of the OEMs car-fleets.
Besides of light metal structures fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) are a material group which is suitable for lightweight design. Because of this FRP are already used in high-priced products. The reason for the limited distribution in high volume productions, like the automotive industry is mostly because of the low automation rate and the high production costs.
For the high volume production of high-strength fiber composites the liquid composite molding processes (LCM) has the highest potential. Within this process the degree of automation has to be increased. Therefor the aim must be to produce under the premises of automation, short cycle times and high reproducibility. Here, the press-based RTM process has the highest potential. Within the RTM process chain, the draping process is the central process step which has to be developed. The aim for the draping process therefore lies in overcoming the challenges which arise between a full automated process and a high component quality which suits the requirements for high performance structural components.
The aim must therefore be to develop basic knowledge for automation and in-line metrology for the draping process to bring this into general valid solutions. This approach offers the best conditions to achieve the aim of a fully automated FRP manufacturing process chain for complex structural component.


[ 89 ] Lanza, G.; Schulze, V.; Stockey, S.; Chlipala, M. & Haefner, B. (2012), „Automated Measurement Data Analysis for Micro Structured Surfaces“. Proceedings of 12th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, Hrsg. European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, Sieca Repro, S. 235-238.
Abstract:
Microstructures applied to the surface of a friction bearing are able to improve the behavior of the part. Due to the challenges regarding the production processes of microstructured surfaces an automated and user-independent in-line quality assurance can make a contribution to improve the production processes significantly. Therefore a three stage measurment filter was developed in order to automatically detect microstructures on the surface even under the restriction of a bad signal-noise ratio.


[ 90 ] Peters, S. & Lanza, G. (2012), „Produktionstechnik - Empfehlungen und Entwicklungstendenzen“. Konferenzband zum Workshop eNOVA Strategiekreis Elektromobilität, S. 1-26.
Abstract:
Vorstellung der Empfehlungen und Entwicklungstendenzen in der Produktionstechnik mit Fokus Leichtbau und Elektromobilität beim Workshop eNOVA Strategiekreis Elektromobilität am 26.06.12 in Berlin.


[ 91 ] Helu, M.; Behmann, B.; Meier, H.; Dornfeld, D.; Lanza, G. & Schulze, V. (2012), „Total Cost Analysis of Process Time Reduction as a Green Machining Strategy“. Hrsg. Dornfeld, Springer, S. 299-304.
Abstract:
Manufacturers have pursued green machining strategies, such as process time reduction, to address the demand for environmental impact reduction. These strategies, though, increase the stresses on the manufacturing system, which can affect availability, service life, achieved part quality, and cost. This study presents a total cost analysis of process time reduction for titanium machining to holistically consider the implications of such strategies. While the results suggest it may not be a viable green machining strategy for titanium machining, the feasibility of process time reduction as a greening solution is highly dependent on the functionality of the finished part.


[ 92 ] Lanza, G.; Koelmel, A. & Stockey, S. (2012), „Automated Optical Detection of Particles and Defects on a Li-Ion-Cell Surface Using Multi-Scale Sensors in Combination with a Single-Point Analysis“. Advanced Technologies for E-Mobility and Energy Storage, S. 91.
Abstract:
In the field of cell and battery production today is manufacturing companies are faced with even more intense competitive conditions. Production costs need to be reduced and at the same time the quality of the products have to be improved to succeed in dynamic and global networked markets. Therefore, the reduction of scrap while increasing the level of automation shows great potential. For this purpose it is necessary to assure the quality of products and processes with methods and procedures that can be used in process and in cycle time (the so-called in-process quality assurance). Fulfilling These requirements ensures the high level of automation and the strongly related productivity. The non-conformity rate can be reduced additionally, because changes in product and process characteristics can be identified as early as possible. Consequently, corrective action can be taken before producing deficient products. In order to check as many detailed features as possible, various methods are used in this context to analyze the measurement data. The results strongly depend on the choice of appropriate parameters and thus, strongly depend on the user. The challenge here is the implementation of an automatic measurement data processing, to allow a user-independent, objective and comparable evaluation of measurement data. The main challenge in providing a method for the automatic quality assurance of Li-Ion-Cell surface can be seen in the fact that defects cannot be evaluated by observing the surface with only one optical sensor. With a complete width up to 400-600 mm, the cell foil is marked to be 100.000 times larger than the possible defects like e.g. particles on the surface. This directly shows the need for an adaptable sensor system with the ability to scale up the measurement resolution. Therefore a concept of a multisensory system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor (macro dimensions) in combination with a confocal optical sensor (micro dimensions) is developed at the wbk – Institute of Production Science at KIT. Beside the sensor hardware, the algorithms for evaluating the measurement data need to be in focus as well. Regarding the measurement data evaluation, the automatic detection of points with remarkable deviations in e.g. z-direction can lead to a successful filtering of the Regions of Interest (ROI). This filtering stage for measurement data gained by using a laser triangulation sensor is named the Single Point Analysis and it is necessary to evaluate the smaller application area for the confocal optical sensor. In general, the Single Point Analysis observes the inter-point distance of every point within the measurement range. Therefore a mean distance for each single measurement point is calculated by the consideration of the distances to its direct neighbors. This mean distance of each single point is weighted adjustable according to the mean distance of the whole measurement point cloud. Due to the regular shape of the measurement point cloud by using ptical sensors, all deviations in z-direction of the measurement points can be observed using this algorithm.


[ 93 ] Book, J.; Kumar, M.; Lanza, G. & Srai, J. . (2012), „Quality Risk Management in Global Supply Networks: An Agent-Based Approach“. Proceedings of The Annual Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium, Hrsg. University of Cambrigde, S. 1-40.
Abstract:
This paper presents an agent-based risk management approach to manage quality risks in global supply networks. The presented methodology blends qualitative and quantitative approaches to the exploration of quality risks in global supply networks by incorporating case study and agent-based modelling methodologies. Manufacturing companies are becoming part of global fragmented supply networks due to the increasing operational specialisation. One threat in these multiple actor networks is the risk that product quality standards are not maintained. The quantification and mitigation of this risk is theoretically and practically challenging due to the special characteristics of supply networks like varied objectives of participating actors or decentralised network governance. A two-step methodology has been developed to identify and evaluate the quality risks and then evaluate the effectiveness of possible mitigation measures. This approach is based on an agent-based simulation model that simulates the impact of quality risks and the acceptance of mitigation measures.


[ 94 ] Lanza, G. & Sauer, A. (2012), „Optimization of Production Ramp-Up by using a Simulation for Personnel Requirements Planning“. Proceedings of the 24th European Modeling & Simulation Symposium, Hrsg. TU Wien, S. 32-37.
Abstract:
Today there is a strong innovation competition; this is why the number of product models constantly increases and the reduction of product life cycles causes a more frequent occurrence of production ramp-ups. Therefore, it is inevitable that the existing resources, especially human resources should be used efficiently in order to ensure an ideal ramp-up. Hence, the planning of these resources has become an important challenge also in a ramp-up. This paper presents an approach developed at the Institute of Production Science (wbk) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology to optimize the forecast of personnel requirements during ramp-up. It describes a method providing support to the calculation of the necessary manpower for every single ramp-up phase in order to realize an economic optimum. Therefore, the paper focuses on the simulation of the ramp-up process within its dynamic planning variables, organizational basic conditions, its verification and results.


[ 95 ] Lanza, G.; Stoll, J.; Kölmel, A. & Peters, S. (2012), „Flexible Production Lines for Series Production of Automotive Electric Drives“. Proceedings of 2nd International Electric Drive Production Conference, Hrsg. Fraunhofer-Verlag, S. 2-5.
Abstract:
The economic production of drive components is a major condition for the market success of electric vehicles. To deal with the high number of variants in the automotive industry, market uncertainties and to ensure an economic production, it is necessary to develop flexible production lines which meet the requirements of automotive series production. Based on the development of a production-oriented component design, manufacturing and different measurement methods have to be examined and enabled to readiness. Moreover, simulation-based classification models will be used for the final design of the production lines.


[ 96 ] Lanza, G.; Viering, B. & Haefner, B. (2012), „Experimental Approach for Proposing the Lifetime of Micro Gears Through Their Shape Deviations“. Proceedings of CIRP General Assembly, Hrsg. Springer, S. 1-12.
Abstract:
Micro gears as parts of micro transmissions are used in manifold industrial applications. The prediction of their lifetime is crucial to ensure their proper operation. For micro gears, geometric shape deviations and material defects have a significant influence on their lifetime. In the presented approach a model for the predition of the lifetime of micro gears is proposed which depends on their geometric shape deviations and material defects. The model is developed based on systematic abrasive experiments, geometric characterization of the micro gears by means of CMM and CT measurements and Weibull analysis.


[ 97 ] Lanza, G. & Appel, D. (2012), „Reliability-dependent choice of spare part provision and maintenance strategies at optimal cost as an offered service“. Proceedings of 11th International Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference & The Annual European Safety and Reliability Conference.
Abstract:
The paper proposed shows a method to optimize spare part provision and maintenance strategies based on the development of appropriate cost-functions and statistical load-dependent failure prognosis.
In order to strengthen their position in the global market, enterprises in mechanical and plant engineering need to differentiate themselves from their competitors. In the machine engineering segment, it is first and foremost the spare part provision and the maintenance that provides machine producers with an interesting opportunity to gain competitive advantage. This paper presents a systematic approach to spare part provision and maintenance delivery at optimal cost which is based on the structural field data of the machines, their operation conditions and their failure data. The starting point is a structured analysis of the machine pool, spare parts and their provision, in order to be able to parameterize their characteristics. A prognosis of the demand of spare parts and maintenance activities can be delivered via a load-dependent reliability analysis. The reliability analysis uses accelerated life testing models.
This work will focus on a methodology which uses an optimization model that assigns an appropriate spare parts provision and maintenance strategy. The goal of the main optimization is to reach the highest possible service level at a given cost and vice versa. On the one hand, minimizing downtimes through elevated spare parts stocks leads to an increase of carrying costs. On the other hand, a decrease of spare parts stocks bears the risk of deficient parts, longer downtimes and thus higher downtime costs. Therefore, the objective is to develop an optimization model, which allows an optimal allocation of spare part provision and maintenance strategies in terms of availability and costs. In order to achieve this objective, first of all a holistic decision model is formulated. So as to finalize the decisions on a well-grounded base, the different strategies are subsequently transformed into monetary criteria. Finally, an integrated optimization model and the formulation of appropriate resolution methods for identification of the optimal allocation for the service strategy are presented.


[ 98 ] Lanza, G. & Brabandt, D. (2012), „Sustainable Automated Production of Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) through Inline Quality Assurance“. Towards Implementing Sustainable Manufacturing, Hrsg. College International pour L'Etude Scientifique des Techniques de Production, S. 123-127.
Abstract:
Sustainable individual mobility can only be achieved by reducing CO2 emissions. An option for achieving this objective is to reduce the mass of vehicles, which is forced by the trend towards electric vehicles and by new CO2 regulations. Fiber reinforced plastics are a material group, which is highly suitable for lightweight car design. However, due to the current low automation rate and high production costs the material is not widely used. In particular, the automation of the draping-process - the forming operation of semi-finished textiles - has to be developed. Imperfections, which occur in this process step, can influence the performance of the part in a dramatic way. At the moment, these defects are only detected at the end of the entire production, which leads to high costs. This paper will show how the integration of inline metrology can help to reduce the scrap rate of the parts.


[ 99 ] Lanza, G. & Stockey, S. (2012), „Automated Surface Measurement Data Analysis with Noise Suppression“. Proceedings of 3rd CIRP Conference on Process Machine Interactions, Hrsg. Springer, Elsevier, S. 58-62.
Abstract:
Microstructures applied on technical surfaces can lead to a significant improvement of the function of a workpiece. Most of the technical surfaces are preliminary processed, e.g. grinded, before applying the microstructure. Regarding the quality assuran ce, the grinding grooves on the surface can be a barrier when it comes to automatically detect the microstructure and afterwards calculate function oriented quality indicators. Therefore a three-stage noise suppression methodology is presented in this paper using the single point analysis, the Sobel algorithm and the Hough transformation to automatically detect the accurate form of the microstructure in order to enable the subsequent calculation of function orientated quality indicators. These quality indicators can be used to automatically adjust the parameters of the production machine while it is operating.


[ 100 ] Lanza, G.; Stengele, G. & Stricker, N. (2012), „Improved Calculation of Weibull distributions for deficient industrial data in the context of Life Cycle Costs“. Towards Implementing Sustainable Manufacturing, Hrsg. Prof. Dr.-Ing. G. Seliger, S. 225-231.
Abstract:
Advancing globalization leads to growing competition and this in turn results in new requirements in the purchasing process of machines and plants. In order to buy the best production equipment with respect to price and productivity, two crucial criteria are to focus: investment price and quality of the machine. The concept of Life Cycle Costs (LCC) takes into account price and quality of a machine. However, in the machine and plant industry LCC statements are still quite uncertain as the existing database on which they are built is mostly deficient. Based on these data reliability studies on the machine’s lifetime are generated via mathematical methods. A commonly used method is the so called Weibull Analysis. Due to the deficient database this method can be inferior. In order to improve the Weibull method with respect to a deficient database a new mathematical procedure for improved Weibull Analysis is presented.


[ 101 ] Lanza, G. & Sauer, A. (2013), „Quality-Oriented Production Planning of Battery Assembly for Automotive Application“. Proceedings of Cirp Production Systems and Organization Scientific Technical Committee, Hrsg. Elsevier.

[ 102 ] Lanza, G.; Book, J.; Kippenbrock, K. & Saxena, A. (2013), „Innovative Quality Strategies for Global Value-Added-Networks“. Proceedings of the CIRP Sponsored Conference RoMaC, Hrsg. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, S. 271-286.
Abstract:
Many companies no longer act locally within their domestic markets, but have established a global network of worldwide production sites. Due to the long and diversified structures of supply chains and differences in the maturity levels of suppliers, distributed networks develop various fluctuations, in terms of varying product quality and delivery times, which can result in image loss and financial losses to the companies of the network. Moreover, an improperly implemented quality strategy in a network will result in higher costs. The preliminary idea is to make these networks insensitive to such fluctuations by identifying and evaluating suitable quality strategies. Due to the absence of site-specific optimization and the complex structures of networks, it is difficult to find suitable quality strategies for production networks. The complexity in the networks includes unknown defect propagation, limited influence due to decentralized structures and conflicting objectives and unknown inter-relationships amongst the various supply chain members. The research project IQ.net deals with these problems by developing innovative methods, models and practical tools for planning, optimization and control of quality strategies for globally distributed production networks, thus obtaining zero-defect production networks. This chapter aims to discuss various aspects of IQ.net including, the definition of quality in networks, the analysis and evaluation of various systems for managing network-wide quality data considering local versus global data, as well as, three core methods to identify robust quality strategies for specific network configurations.


[ 103 ] Stoll, J.; Lanza, G. & Peters, S. (2013), „Flexible series production of lamination stacks“. Proceedings of 13th Stuttgart International Symposium, Hrsg. Springer, Springer Vieweg, S. 553-564.

[ 104 ] Lanza, G.; Blank, T. & Haefner, B. (2013), „Design for Testability for Micro-Mechatronic Systems“. Proceedings of 23rd CIRP Design Conference, Hrsg. Elsevier, Springer-Verlag, S. 283-292.
Abstract:
The development and manufacturing of highly precise micro-mechatronic systems, such as MEMS applications, is a challenging task due to the complexity and variety of their manufacturing technologies, as well as their high quality requirements. Within the context of the product engineering process of micro-mechatronic systems, quality inspection by means of production measurement technology is a crucial factor. This paper presents a survey of the challenges regarding quality inspection of micro-mechatronic systems. Furthermore, a Design for Testability approach for these types of products is described and exemplary applications of its implementation are shown.


[ 105 ] Lanza, G.; Stricker, N. & Appel, D. (2013), „Calculation of Maintenance Costs on Poor Data Basisand Implementation in Industrial Practice“. Product-Service Integration for Sustainable Solutions, Hrsg. Horst Meier, Springer, S. 597-608.
Abstract:
Life-cycle cost statements become increasingly important for OEMs to stay competitive in today’s global environment. However, OEMs have to create this information from a poor data basis. Generating reliable statistical LCC statements despite the poor data is the methodical challenge. Consequently, it’s crucial to set up an instrument that prepares the data for analysis and simplifies future data collection. Therefore, a database was set up for Licon mt GmbH & Co. KG and the Weibull solution method was adapted by using a weighted pseudo inverse matrix. Both, the database and the adapted method are presented.


[ 106 ] Lanza, G. & Stricker, N. (2013), „Reliability 2.0 - Challenges in Reliability of Future Production Systems“. Proccedings, Hrsg. ReliaSoft Corporation, S. 441-453.
Abstract:
The understanding of reliability in production has to be adapted in the context of future production. Herein two levels of reliability have to be addressed. On the level of production systems , reliability considerations are being faced more and more with very flexible, highly connected, and therefore increasingly complex systems. On the machine level however also the reliability of individual machines still has to be analyzed. Therefore the presentation on the one hand examines the impact of future production systems on reliability and which effects may need to be considered in future, e.g. re-scheduling of products in case of a machine breakdown. On the other hand also the reliability of individual machines is regarded and an action is proposed to improve current analyzing by systematically extending the given databases. In this context also the impacts on maintenance strategy planning of machines are considered.


[ 107 ] Peters, S. & Lanza, G. (2013), „Markovian Decision Processes and Queueing Theory for Investment Planning of Production Systems“. Proceedings of SMMSO 2013, S. 1-8.
Abstract:
Today production planning has to deal with highly dynamic markets and increasing uncertainties. Moreover, it has to take into account possibilities of the surrounding production network. By combining a queueing theory model with a stochastic, dynamic optimization approach, a method to support decision making in production planning was developed. Hereby, a Markovian Decision Process is solved to find cost minimal policies as reactions to volatile market demands for minimizing costs due to capacity adaptations, changes in process steps, and locations. The method was applied at two automotive suppliers to finnd suitable system configurations and investment decisions for an uncertain future.


[ 108 ] Lanza, G. & Häfner, B. (2013), „Measurement Setup for the Experimental Evaluation of Micro Gears“. Proceedings of 13th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, Hrsg. European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, S. 128-131.
Abstract:
Micro gears are crucial parts of micro transmissions for various applications in industries such as medical, automotive and industrial automation that require highest precision. In order to enhance the lifetime prediction of micro gears, an experimental approach is to be developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology to model the influence of geometric shape deviations and the material structure of micro gears on their lifetime. For this, a highly precise experimental setup is required to conduct abrasive experiments under clearly defined conditions. In this article a suitable experimental rig is presented.


[ 109 ] Lanza, G.; Stricker, N. & Peters, S. (2013), „Ad-hoc Rescheduling and Innovative Business Models for Shock-robust Production Systems“. Procedia CIRP Volume 7, Hrsg. Pedro F. Cunha, S. 121-126.
Abstract:
Reconfigurability, flexibility, transformability and agility become key enablers of success. This leads to new business models and the necessity of new concepts for production planning along the whole value chain. Adequate methods have to integrate the possibilities of a migration of the network and the changeability of each single plant. Moreover these approaches should be able to cope with uncertainty and reduce the complexity for the decision-makers to a minimum. Consequently, this paper focuses on two major aspects: ad-hoc rescheduling of reconfigurable plants as well as new innovative business models between equipment or component supplier and OEM. Cyber-physical systems will enable new decentralized and autonomously working production equipment and in doing so, reduce complexity and boost up the speed of possible reactions to market shocks. Component suppliers will enrich their portfolio by new bundling approaches including warranties to their products in terms of risk prevention (e.g. warranties for needed time to react to market changes or bottlenecks).


[ 110 ] Lanza, G.; Stoll, J. & Gerbe, S. (2013), „Technology selection for electric drive production with a game theoretic approach“. Proceedings of WGP Congress 2013, Hrsg. Trans Tech Publications, S. 303-310.
Abstract:
To solve the supply chain decision problem of technology selection for electric drive production, the authors chose a game theoretic approach to model and solve the bargaining Situation of manufacturer (OEM) and supplier. The OEM can decide between a same part strategy and a differentiating strategy with increasing sales potential as well as higher complexity and production costs. The supplier has to choose a production technology and can decide between a specialized technology (e.g. punching) and a flexible technology (e.g. laser). Using the specialized Technology the variable costs per piece are lower but every additional variant causes additional tool investments (e.g. punching dies). The interdependence of a supplier’s choice of production technology and ist customer’s decision, regarding the number of different product variants that he wishes to source, is modeled as a non-cooperative game in strategic form. The resulting Nash equilibriums in pure and mixed strategies are determined with respect to the investment costs faced by the supplier, the target market conditions and the cost share passed on to the supplier’s customer.


[ 111 ] Lanza, G.; Stoll, J.; Stricker, N.; Peters, S. & Lorenz, C. (2013), „Measuring Global Production Effectiveness“. Procedia CIRP Volume 7, Hrsg. Cunha, P. F., Elsevier, S. 31-36.
Abstract:
Increasingly shorter product life cycles at an increasing number of variations call for productive, reliable and quality-oriented production systems and networks which are able to meet the turbulence of global demand especially at an expected higher frequency of economic crises. The following paper presents the development of a theoretical measure for an evaluation that integrates all aspects of a globally distributed production system. The work is based on the latest enhancements of the classic OEE figure of the TPM concept.


[ 112 ] Lanza, G.; Brabandt, D. & Bingemann, P. (2013), „Timesaving quality assurance for preforming in the automotive serial production of CFRP“. Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Composite Materials, Hrsg. Suong Van Hoa, S. V. H. & Pascal Hubert, P. H., S. 8309-8317.

[ 113 ] Peters, S. & Lanza, G. (2013), „Production Technology Management“. Proceedings of 63th CIRP General Assembly, Hrsg. Springer.
Abstract:
This technical presentation presents motivation and specifications for a new maturity level focusing on production technologies. The key question is: how to measure the readiness of an innovative production technology for series production? A second aspect is on migration strategies from conventional to innovative (maybe unmature) processes.


[ 114 ] Lanza, G.; Koelmel, A.; Peters, S.; Sauer, A. & Stockey, S. (2013), „Automated Optical Detection of Particles and Defects on a Li-Ion-Cell Surface Using a Single-Point Analysis“. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), Hrsg. IEEE Conference Publications, S. 687.
Abstract:
Electric mobility is of crucial importance for a sustainable future of individual mobility. Challenges in energy storage with batteries have been identified as a major barrier of a broader electrification of cars. Expensive raw materials, a high scrap rate in production of cells and the lack of a not fully automated process chain lead to high costs of electric cars.
Within this paper a new approach, named Single-Point- Analysis, is presented to setup inline quality assurance in the production of cell foils using optical measurement techniques. The filtering algorithm observes the inter-point distance of each single point in the range of interest. Furthermore a mean distance for each single measurement point is calculated by considering the distances to its direct neighbors. The main focus is the detection of particles and defects like scratches on the cell surface. It is demonstrated that the developed analysis is able to clearly identify these typical failures of cells.


[ 115 ] Lanza, G.; Stricker, N. & Stoll, J. (2013), „Innovative product-services for robust global supply chains - a viewpoint“. Proceedings of the 17th Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium, Hrsg. University of Cambrigde, S. 386-400.
Abstract:
Global supply chains are subject to many disruptions of different kinds. In order to transform the existing rigid supply chains into shock-robust networks two dimensions have to be regarded: the supply chain dimension and the manufacturing dimension. On the supply chain dimension new product-service models are regarded which allow for a much higher service level and thus for a better resilience of the whole network. The manufacturing dimension enables these innovative product-service models by addressing the production processes of the individual player. Therefore an EU project has just started to conduct research on innovative decision-making methods which integrate production planning at single players into the management of the whole global network. Advanced tools will be implemented in a management cockpit at each player. CPS-data feed the cockpits and will give a clear view of the actual statues of the whole supply chain which drastically reduces complexity.


[ 116 ] Lanza, G.; Greinacher, S.; Jondral, A. & Moser, R. (2013), „Monetary Assessment of an Integrated Lean-/Green-Concept“. Innovative Solutions, Hrsg. Günther Seliger, S. 548-553.
Abstract:
Energy and natural resource prices are subject to a rising tendency with increasing volatility worldwide. On account of growing demand and limited resources, companies are obliged to aim at minimum waste production. However, the forecast of effects of combined lean and green practices presents a major challenge. So far, they have predominantly been calculated, optimized, and assessed independently of one another. This paper introduces a methodology for a successive further development of lean and green production based on the proactive monetary assessment of combined effects of both lean and green strategies. The outlined approach covers data collection and evaluation of the current production system, calculation of relevant key figures of selected combinations of lean and green practices by use of a queuing theory based analytical material flow model, proactive monetary assessment of the analyzed combination, and deduction of a company-specific plan of measures.


[ 117 ] Lanza, G. & Häfner, B. (2013), „Areal Characterization of Micro Gears by means of Computed Tomography“. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Measurement and Quality Control (ISMQC), Hrsg. International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO), S. 1-4.
Abstract:
Micro gears are crucial components in micro transmissions which are used in manifold industrial applications in e.g. medical, automotive, aerospace, industrial automation or robotics. Due to their small size and their important application purposes, their quality requirements are very high. Therefore, both precise measurement systems and sophisticated data evaluation techniques are required to characterize their quality sufficiently.
While measurements of gears were traditionally evaluated by means of line-based parameters according to DIN 3960/VDI 2607, some newer approaches propose methods for the areal characterization of gears. These provide the advantage of a higher accuracy of the measurement results due to the larger datasets of measurement points evaluated over the entire tooth flanks. Thus, an areal characterization is particularly suitable in the case of micro gears. Yet, this has not been analyzed, in particular, so far.
Most commonly, micro gears are measured by means of a micro CMM with a tactile sensor. However, in order to measure a sufficiently large number of data points for an areal characterization of the micro gears, a very long measurement time is required. A faster approach to measure a large amount of data points of a micro gear is provided by the application of computed tomography (CT). A set of several thousands of data points distributed over all flanks of the micro gear can be collected within few minutes. Yet, neither suitable measurement strategies for the CT characterization of micro gears have been investigated in detail, nor areal gear parameters have been determined based on CT measurements of micro gears so far.
Furthermore, while methods have been established to determine the measurement uncertainty for CMM measurements of micro gears, e.g. by means of an experimental approach using a capable reference standard, for micro gears no approach for the uncertainty evaluation of CT measurements has been investigated up to now.
Therefore, in this article, a general methodology is developed to measure micro gears by means of computed tomography, evaluate them based on suitable areal parameters and determine the measurement uncertainty by means of a reference standard. The methodology is validated by CT measurements of exemplary micro gears.


[ 118 ] Lanza, G. & Häfner, B. (2013), „Flächenhafte Messung von Mikrozahnrädern mittels Computertomographie und Koordinatenmesstechnik“. Tagungsband 6. Kolloquium Mikroproduktion, S. 1-6.
Abstract:
Mikrozahnräder sind wichtige Bauteile in vielfältigen innovativen Anwendungen. Die Computertomographie (CT) bietet aufgrund ihrer hohen Informationsdichte großes Potential für deren Qualitätssicherung. Der Artikel beschreibt eine Methode zur flächigen Messung von Mikrozahnrädern mit geringer Messunsicherheit, bei der die CT-Messdaten mit taktilen Messdaten fusioniert werden.


[ 119 ] Lanza, G.; Häfner, B. & Gibmeier, J. (2013), „Methodology for the lifetime prediction of micro gears dependent on present shape deviations and the material structure“. Proceedings of the 22nd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL), S. 1-7.
Abstract:
Micro gears are crucial components in micro trans-missions which are used in manifold industrial applications in e.g. medical, automotive, aerospace, industrial automation or robotics. Due to their small size and their important application purposes the requirements to their quality and reliability are typically very high. In this article the correlation between the manufacturing quality and the lifetime of micro gears is explored. The article presents a methodology to quantitatively describe the influence of geometric shape deviations and of the material structure of micro gears on their lifetime. A lifetime prediction model is described enabling the determination of the failure probability of micro gears with defined shape deviations and defined material defects dependent on the operating time and the present load torque. The model is developed by means of statistical reliability analysis methods on the basis of experimental data. The result of the model is a distribution of the failure probability for a specific gear type with known shape deviations and material defects to which a defined load is applied. The experimental data are determined via systematic abrasive experiments by means of an experimental rig, in each experiment rolling a pair of micro gears with a defined load until failure. Before each experiment and at suitable intermediate times the external shape as well as the internal material condi-tions of the micro gears are characterized non-destructively by means of coordinate metrology and computed tomography. The main benefit of the method is that a micro gear can be characterized already in the early development phase in a way such that its lifetime can be predicted within a small variance range. The knowledge of the expected lifetime dependent on the geometric shape and the material structure allows a more meaningful classification of micro gears. It provides important information for the design of micro gears in all of their various fields of application. For instance, by means of the new method the requested manufacturing tolerances of a micro gear can be determined in compliance with its required lifetime and the respective manufacturing processes and parameters can be adapted to this.


[ 120 ] Lanza, G.; Sauer, A. & Kölmel, A. (2013), „Configuration of a multi-use battery production“. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual Production (CARV 2013), Hrsg. Springer International Publishing, S. 473-478.
Abstract:
Electric vehicles are widely regarded as one solution of future mobility. However, they still pose multifarious challenges as the increase in demand for electric vehicles, the diversity of battery variants, the development of new battery designs and the alternative usable manufacturing technologies in the production process. Hence a battery assembly which enables its changeability and its reuse is required. Furthermore expensive raw materials, safety aspects and a so far not fully automated process chain require the integration of quality assurance aspects during assembly planning. Therefore product developers and machinery and plant engineers are supported in planning a quality ensured changeable and reusable - a so called multi-use - battery assembly. To this end, a configurator has to be developed to provide the planner a decision support. The configurator has to deduce from product-specifications single assembly stations for its battery assembly, evaluates them regarding their changeability and reuse as well as the OEE and costs of the entire assembly line and gives a prioritized list of assembly alternatives as the output.


[ 121 ] Lanza, G.; Moser, R. & Jondral, A. (2013), „Method for the identification of point in time for changes in production networks“. Management and Control of Production and Logistics, Volume# 6 | Part# 1, Hrsg. International Federation of Automatic Control, S. 87-94.
Abstract:
By focusing on core competencies and the utilization of international location advantages such as access to low-wage labor and local sales markets, global production networks are becoming increasingly complex. Additionally, turbulent times with great uncertainty forces globally acting enterprises to adapt their production networks. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the right point in time for change and also to identify the beneficial production network alternatives. In other words, globally acting enterprises have to answer the two questions of what to change and when to change. The presented method describes an approach for the strategic planning of global changeable production networks, based on future scenarios and a multi-objective optimization to identify the most favorable network configuration during the planning horizon. The multi-objective optimization is modeled as a mixed-integer MODM problem (multi- objective decision making) including seven criteria i.e. costs, delivery time, quality, flexibility, customer proximity, coordination and plant qualification.


[ 122 ] Lanza, G.; Stoll, J. & Krämer, A. (2013), „Assessment of Lamination Stack Production“. Proceedings 3rd International Electric Drives Production Conference (E|DPC), Hrsg. IEEE, S. 52-59.
Abstract:
The economic production of automotive electric drives challenges manufacturers and OEMs. In order to support the cost optimal technology choice, a real lamination stack production is assessed with respect to quantity and variant flexibility. Therefore the process chain of a sample product is analyzed from the coil material to the finished stack. The cost interdependencies are analytically modeled in order to calculate the production costs from a bottom-up perspective. The cost calculation is done for a punching as well as a laser-cutting line. Based on this evaluation manufacturing processes can be chosen and volume-flexible series production lines can be designed.


[ 123 ] Lanza, G.; Ruhrmann, S.; Stricker, N. & Kohl, M. (2013), „Optimization Model for value-added networks of globally operating companies “. Proceedings of 22nd International Conference on Production Research, Hrsg. International Foundation for Production Research, S. 1-7.
Abstract:
In a world of progressing internationalization of corporate operations, the rise of ever more international valueadded networks can be observed. The configuration and coordination of interdependent production and logistics networks feature enormous potential to optimize the total landed cost of a company's product portfolio. Consequently, the complex structure of a value-added network should not be configured randomly or by comparing only a few alternatives. Optimization in this domain can thus lead to substantial competitive advantages in global markets. Therefore, a consecutive approach is developed that supports the decision-making process to configure a value-added network optimally by especially taking into consideration the specific situation of a multinational corporation. Thereby, the interdependent correlations within the value-added network are modeled and a dynamic mixed-integer linear program for a cost based optimization of the parameters in the network is developed.


[ 124 ] Daum, C.; Moser, R.; Book, J.; Lanza, G. & Fleet, D. (2012), „Introducing Scenario Planning to manage Supply Chains in an uncertain environment“. Proceedings of 16th Cambridge Symposium on International Manufacturing 2012, S. 01-17.

[ 125 ] Lanza, G.; Stricker, N. & Moser, R. (2013), „Concept of an intelligent Production Control for Global Manufacturing in dynamic Environments based on Rescheduling“. Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE, Hrsg. IEEE, S. 315-319.
Abstract:
This paper presents an approach towards an innovative and intelligent production control for a highly flexible and efficient production in an increasingly dynamic and complex environment. For this purpose, a novel and flexible production control is developed on the basis of intelligent rescheduling for global manufacturing networks gained by using of real-time information.


[ 126 ] Häfner, B.; Krämer, A.; Stauss, T. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Quality Value Stream Mapping“. Procedia CIRP, Hrsg. Elsevier, Elsevier, S. 254-259.
Abstract:
Companies in the manufacturing industry today are faced with increasing challenges with respect to cost effectiveness, lead time and quality of the production system. Dealing with these contradictory goals, an important task is the selection of suitable solutions for the integration of inspection processes within the process chain, which are necessary to ensure the required production quality. For this, supportive and easily applicable planning techniques are required to analyze and design the configuration of a respective process chain. Value Stream Mapping (VSM) is a state of the art tool which is very often used for this by professionals. It, however, is not capable of addressing the issue of a suitable integration of testing processes within the process chain. Yet, this provides valuable potential to facilitate the identification of effective testing equipment, testing strategies and quality control loops. Therefore, in this article an innovative approach called Quality Value Stream Mapping (QVSM) is presented. Based on the design elements of VSM, it provides a suitable tool for the visualization, analysis and design of quality assurance measures within process chains in manufacturing. The implementation of the developed approach is exemplarily shown for a complex value chain of a manufacturer in the electronic industry.


[ 127 ] Krämer, A.; Lin, S.; Brabandt, D.; Böhlke, T. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Quality Control in the Production Process of SMC Lightweight Material“. Procedia CIRP, Hrsg. Elsevier, Herausgeber/Veranstalter Elsevier, S. 772-777.
Abstract:
The use of sheet molding compounds (SMC) in diverse applications requires different specific material properties for each type of finished parts. These material properties have to be assured by a reliable quality control, which does not only have to be performed for the prefabricated SMC itself but also during the production process of the semi-finished material. This is of high importance because quality fluctuations and defects can already occur during the production of the semi-finished SMC. This results in high scrap rates as well as machine failure and can additionally cause further problems in the following process steps. Hence, an inline quality control can help to establish objective quality criteria for semi-finished SMC and can enable controlled and stable production processes. Therefore, this paper deals with quality assurance in the production process of semi-finished sheet molding compounds. Air entrapping and fiber distribution are identified as two parameters that influence the quality of the semi-finished product significantly. In addition, the early detection of a pending carrier foil failure can help to establish a stable process. The focus of this paper lies on how various, individually adapted metrology systems can be used for the detection of the respective characteristics and integrated into the production process of the semi-finished SMC. In particular, optical systems, such as area scan cameras and laser stripe sensors as well as thermographic sensors are discussed and possibilities for application-related sensor data evaluation are shown. This helps to reduce the scrap rates of parts and to establish a further automated production process.


[ 128 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Dosch, S.; Elser, J. & Pangboonyanon, W. (2014), „Fixtureless Alignment of Joining Partners within the Assembly of Aluminum Space Frame Structures“. Procedia CIRP, Hrsg. Elsevier Procedia, S. 01-05.
Abstract:
Light-weight aluminium space frame structures are frequently used for small-volume products, such as sports cars. The assembly of these products has so far been mainly manual and requires the use of complex and expensive fixtures. To increase the profitability, the research conducted at wbk Institute of Production Science is aiming to achieve an automated, fixtureless assembly of such structures by the use of industrial robots. To achieve the required accuracies regarding the alignment of the joining partners, a new approach based on component-inherent markings has been developed. This article describes the approach for the fixtureless positioning of components and the validation of the marking detection.


[ 129 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Otter, M. & Pangboonyanon, W. (2014), „Small Batch Assembly of Space-Frame-Structures with Production Related Deviations of Individual Components“. Procedia CIRP, Hrsg. Elsevier Procedia, S. 01-06.
Abstract:
In this paper an approach for a precise assembly of space-frame-structures is presented, while each of the single components features production-related deviations. The first section shows the results for the compensation of production-related deviations for dimensionally curved profiles in a space-frame-structure. The actual approach deals with the machining of the profile-end segments. Thus, the spatial alignment of the entire profile-contour can be optimized and therefore be adjusted to the theoretical profile-contour. In the second section, a flexible clamping-gripper for the assembly of space-frame-structures is presented. With this gripper, it is possible to handle and clamp different profiles for a certain assembly process.


[ 130 ] Stoll, J.; Bauer, S. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Systematische Untersuchung alternativer Technologien zur Blechpaketherstellung“. Chancen und Herausforderungen der Elektromobilität - Zu Lande, zu Wasser und in der Lu, Hrsg. FVA, S. 1.

[ 131 ] Chlipala, M.; Stockey, S.; Hirtler, M.; Schulze, V. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Efficient ablation strategies and quality assurance for structuring big surfaces by an ultra-short-pulse laser“. Proceedings of the 14th international conference of the european society for precision engineering and nanotechnology, S. 170-173.
Abstract:
Owing to the high flexibility when using a laser beam as a tool, its field of applicationgrows more and more. In case of micro structuring of metal components especially the use of ultra short laser pulses offers a high potential for precise and high Quality results. However the economical application in an industrial surrounding is still affected by different issues, e. g. a lack of process efficiency. In this work, different factors and their influence on the ablation process are investigated for a improvement of the process efficiency for structuring micro-sized dimple structures on big metallic surfaces. To achieve this goal the repetition rate and the pulse strategy of the laser have to be in focus. Furthermore the interaction between consecutively produced holes and the heat accumulation for each hole were particularly taken into consideration. To constantly ensure the capability of the ablation process it is essential to measure and analyse the results of the process. This sets up the focus on a fast and reliable quality assurance of the ablated microstructures. Therefore this paper covers an automated evaluation approach for optical measurement data of microstructured surfaces in addition to the manufacturing approach.


[ 132 ] Stricker, N. & Lanza, G. (2014), „An Approach towards improving the Robustness of ProductionSystems“. Tagungsband zum wgp Kongress, Hrsg. Trans Tech Publications, S. 461-468.
Abstract:
Robustness becomes a crucial feature of production systems. On the one hand, the systems are subject to many disturbances and on the other hand, a reliable production is demanded. A robust system shall be able to keep the working process on a good performance level despite occurring disturbances. To enable such a system’s behaviour, different actions have to be taken. The paper presents an approach to identify the best action to improve a system’s robustness on an operational and tactical level by investigating its disturbances and performance.


[ 133 ] Appel, D.; Genssler, K.; Stricker, N. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Interdisciplinarity as a success factor—service and reliability planning integrated in a production model“. Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis Beyond the Horizon, Hrsg. Steenbergen et al. (Eds), S. 1325-1332.
Abstract:
In order to strengthen their position in the global market, firms in the plant engineering industry need to differentiate themselves from their competitors. The competition has led to diminishing margins for primary products and the realization that a successful product not only entails the efficient production of the primary product but also elements of the tertiary service sector. Particularly, the field of spare parts services and maintenance management present potentials for plant manufacturers.

This paper describes a systematic approach to increase the availability of production systems by an optimal maintenance and spare parts provision management, considering the realistic failure behavior of the regarded components and their operation conditions. The approach considers the component’s failure as the initial event of the planning and configuration process and emphasizes the integration of the effects of failure, especially in complex systems and production system chains.



[ 134 ] Arndt, T.; Hochdörffer, J.; Moser, E.; Peters, S. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Customer-driven Planning and Control of Global Production Networks - Balancing Standardisation and Regionalisation“. Proceedings of the 18th Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium, Hrsg. University of Cambrigde, S. 60-74.
Abstract:
An increasing and volatile demand in emerging economies challenges manufacturing companies to decide, whether the new markets can be satisfied with the existing product portfolio, or to which extent it has to be adapted to meet the regional market requirements. A three-step approach to enable globally operating companies to efficiently deliver innovative products adapted to regional requirements regarding product design and functionality is presented. In the first step a bottom-up process is formulated on how to design customer-oriented products for frugal innovation integrating the customer directly in the design process. In the second step a methodology to design production systems in accordance with the customised products including the customer in the order-fulfilment process is composed, while in the third step a multi-objective optimization approach is developed to strategically design production networks and to plan and control the designed networks on an operative level taking dynamic business environments into account.


[ 135 ] Stoll, J.; Kemper, B. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Throughput Analysis and Simulation-based Improvement of Baked Varnish Stacking for Automotive Electric Drives“. Electric Drives Production Conference (EDPC), 2014 4th International , Hrsg. IEEE, S. 246-251.
Abstract:
A critical part in the process chain of manufacturing electric drives is the production of laminated stacks. Due to their excellent isolating characteristics, electrical sheets that are coated with baked varnish are often considered to be electric benchmarks. Besides a pure loss evaluation of the laminated stacks, a cost reduction of the overall system should also be aimed for. This paper deals with the optimization of a real production line and focuses on the process chain: stamping with subsequent baking of single-tooth stator stacks for automotive application. The main focus of the improvement potential lies on the baking process, including the necessary pre- and post-processing. In order to optimize the existing line, the simulation software Tecnomatix Plant Simulation was used. Through bottleneck analyses of the modeled system, targeted improvements were derived to achieve a significant increase of the output. Those simulation studies enable virtual adjustments to the running system and a quantification of the expected effects. In the context of a real example, quantitative improvement potentials are presented and the limitations of the process chain baked varnish stacking are shown.


[ 136 ] Häfner, B.; Kölmel, A.; Brabandt, D.; Peters, S. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Dynamische Qualitätssicherung - Hohe Qualitätsrate bei unreifen Produktionstechnologien“. Life-Cycle-Performance von Produktionssystemen: Tagungsband zur wbk-Herbsttagung 2014 (Berichte aus dem Maschinenbau), Hrsg. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Fleischer, Shaker Verlag, S. 125-139.

[ 137 ] Häfner, B.; Quiring, M.; Hirtler, M. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Finite element analysis of micro gears for the prediction of their lifetime“. Proceedings of the 14th international conference of the european society for precision engineering and nanotechnology, Hrsg. Euspen, S. 277-280.
Abstract:
Micro transmissions are very important systems in manifold applications, e.g. in the medical or automotive industry, which enable movements at very small available space. Micro gears are crucial parts of these transmissions. At the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology a methodology for their lifetime prediction is to be developed, which specifically integrates the measured shape deviations of the micro gears. This article outlines how the influence of the shape deviations of the micro gears on their reliability can be modelled by means of the finite element method (FEM).


[ 138 ] Kölmel, A.; Sauer, A. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Quality-oriented production planning of battery assembly systems for electric mobility“. Procedia CIRP 23, Hrsg. Springer, S. 149-154.
Abstract:
Electric mobility seems to be a viable solution for individual mobility in future. However, the use of these alternative drives is accompanied by high costs caused by the battery production. One approach to reduce the production costs is to reduce the rejection rate by integrating appropriate quality assurance measurements in assembly systems. To avoid subsequent, epensive modifications, those measurements must be integrated into the assembly system planning. Therefore, possible integrated measurement technologies for quality-critical characteristics have to be developed and evaluated for the use in the battery assembly. The results are integrated in a planning system to support assembly planners.


[ 139 ] Stricker, N. & Lanza, G. (2014), „The concept of robustness in production systems and its correlation to Disturbances“. Procedia CIRP 19, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 461-468.
Abstract:
Robustness becomes a crucial feature of production systems. On the one hand, the systems are subject to many disturbances and on the other hand, a reliable production is demanded. A robust system shall be able to keep the working process on a good performance level despite occurring disturbances. To enable such a system’s behaviour, different actions have to be taken. The paper presents an approach to identify the best action to improve a system’s robustness on an operational and tactical level by investigating its disturbances and performance.


[ 140 ] Ruhrmann, S.; Hochdörffer, J. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Assessment of Dynamics and Risks in Supplier Selection Processes“. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Digital Enterprise Technology (DET 2014), Hrsg. Procedia CIRP, S. 2-9.
Abstract:
Increasing competitive pressure in the production sector has led to considerable changes in the global competitive structure. Currently, companies attempt to counteract cost pressure by increasing their global outsourcing activities as well as focusing on their core competencies. Hence, global procurement has gained increasing importance among general purchasing activities of companies and is predicted to have an increasing influence on future cost development. Due to this development, companies are looking for new suppliers in low-wage countries. However, companies have to consider negative effects in the fields of quality, service level, and counterfeiting or plagiarising of merchandise. Therefore, cost savings in low-wage countries can only be achieved through major efforts during the planning and the realisation phase of the supplier selection process. Purchasing companies lack systematic assistance in analysing the procurement object and the economic environment of potential supplier candidates. This paper presents a two-step approach dealing with the issue of global procurement in low-wage countries and how this issue is faced taking business environment into account. In the first step, a method is described using the help of a requirement profile for suppliers and a cost structure analysis to select potential suppliers. In the second step, an approach for modelling and identifying potential dynamics and risks related to the acquisition of new suppliers in low-wage countries is developed.


[ 141 ] Brabandt, D. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Data Processing for an Inline Measurement of Preforms in the CFRP-Production“. Proceedings of 9th CIRP Conference on Intelligent Computation Manufacturing Engineering, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 269-274.
Abstract:
Mass reduction of vehicles is getting increasingly important in the automotive industry. Because of their low weight, especially lightweight structures made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) can be seen as a key element to achieve the climate targets of cars in the future. Current especially complex shaped geometries are challenging for the serial production of CFRP. To enable the processes and to reduce scrap rates in the production process, a reliable metrology system has to be established in the early stage of preforming. In the preforming process quality critical features such as the final geometry are defined. Previous tests have shown that laser stripe sensors offer a high potential to measure the surface of the preforms. Nevertheless there are still challenges that will be focused by the presented approach. Due to complex 3D geometries, a combination of two laser stripe sensors has to be used to achieve an area-wide scan by reducing shadowing effects. Because of the limited depth of focus, the two laser stripe senor systems have to be tracked over the geometry equidistant. Furthermore, the sensor system has to be moved in a scanning mode over the preform in several paths to evaluate the whole geometry. To generate a basis for a measurement data evaluation, the scans have to be manipulated and processed in several steps. First, a z-value correction has to be made because of the equidistant scanning. Second, a data fusion of the two laser stripe sensors to one cloud of points representing one scanned path has to be performed. Third, the different scanning paths have to be matched to one complete cloud of points. This finally can be used for further data-processing steps such as a nominal-actual comparison.


[ 142 ] Brabandt, D. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Evaluating the uncertainty of inline-measurements in the production of carbon fiber preforms by computed tomography“. Proceedings of 2015 CIRP Winter Meetings, Hrsg. CIRP - The International Academy for Production Engineering.
Abstract:
Mass reduction of vehicles is getting increasingly important in the automotive industry. Especially lightweight structures made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) can be seen as an enabling technology to achieve the climate targets of cars in the future. To qualify the processes of a serial production and to reduce scrap rates a reliable metrology system has to be established. Especially the forming operation of the semi-finished textiles, the so called preforming has to be evaluated due to the defining of quality critical features in this phase. For this purpose a measurement system based on laser stripe sensors has been developed. To prove the accuracy of this system the measurement process capability has to be investigated. Challenging factors for the assessment of the traceability of laser stripe sensors are the limp and highly reflecting preform characteristics. The approach will present a solution using computer tomography as a traceable reference system to execute a suitable measurement process analysis.


[ 143 ] Brabandt, D. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Inline metrology of carbon fiber preforms as an indicator of mechanical properties of consolidated CFRP parts“. Proceedings of 12th International Conference on the Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Hrsg. Institut für Angewandte Materialien (IAM) - Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT).
Abstract:
The material group of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) is getting more important as a construction material. Due to its high mechanical load capacity CFRP can be applied in many applications. The low density in combination with its mechanical properties makes this material predestinated for lightweight design. Due to this CFRP are getting into the focus for the automotive serial production. But to establish them the production costs and the cycle times have to decrease significant (McKinsey & Company 2012). To facilitate a large-scale use the automated production has to be further developed. Irrespective to the kind of infiltration the forming operation of the semi-finished textiles is a significant process step that has to be controlled. In the so called preforming process the two dimensional semi-finished textiles are laid up in several layers and are transformed into a three dimensional near net shape geometry. Due to the anisotropic properties of carbon fibers this process is crucial for the final mechanical properties of the consolidated part. The complexity of the process makes it susceptible to defects such as form deviations, folds and misalignment of the textiles (Härtel & MIddendorf 2013). These deviations can lead to a significant loss of the mechanical properties of the final part. Currently these kinds of defects are typically detected in an end of line quality inspection by using nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. Thus to get a holistic understanding of the production process it is necessary to measure the preform directly after the preforming process (Lanza & Brabandt 2013). The objective of the presented approach is to generate a complete surface measurement of the preform. Therefor a triangulation system using laser stripe sensors is implemented on a three-axis-kinematics that moves the sensors over the surface. It will be discussed what kind of specific challenges occur by measuring carbon fiber preforms and how they are solved by the presented setup. As a reference carbon fiber specimens representing typical geometric features are investigated. Based on the generated data-sets which are represented by a cloud of points further analysis can be performed. The data can help to improve the manufacturing technologies within the preforming process by getting a three dimensional model of the preform. This model offers the opportunity to analyze the macroscopic behavior of the semi-finished textile in the forming operation. Furthermore the three dimensional model of the preform can be used as a validation for draping simulations. In a direct link to the production process the implementation of an inline metrology system will give the possibility to evaluate deviations from given tolerance limits so that a quality judgment can be made at an early stage. This leads to reduced production costs and scrap rates. The presented metrology system will also give an support to set the right tolerance limits. By digitalizing specimens with known defects a holistic approach for the evaluation of effects of defects (EoD) will be possible by giving essential information to combine them with NTD and destructive end of line tests.


[ 144 ] Greinacher, S.; Moser, E.; Hermann, H. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Simulation based assessment of lean and green strategies in manufacturing systems“. Efficiency to Effectiveness: Sustainability in Manufacturing, Hrsg. Kara, S., S. 86-91.
Abstract:
The increase of resource (energy and material) efficiency by eliminating unnecessary consumption represents the logical continuation from lean manufacturing to lean and green manufacturing. However, economic efficiency remains the primary decision criterion for the implementation of corresponding strategies. This paper presents a simulation based approach for monetary assessment of lean and green manufacturing systems considering non-monetary green limits. Inclusion of material and energy consumption as well as resulting greenhouse gas emissions enables planners to predict the overall economic performance of a factory. Furthermore, product variant specific footprints of material and energy demands as well as resulting emissions support in-depth analysis of value streams in manufacturing.


[ 145 ] Krämer, A.; Kovacheva, E. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Projection based evaluation of CT image quality in dimensional metrology“. Proceedings of International Symposium on Digital Industrial Radiology and Computed Tomography (DIR 2015), Hrsg. NDT net, S. 1-10.
Abstract:
Industrial computed tomography is getting more and more important in dimensional metrology. However, in most cases the selection of scan parameters is based on the experience of the CT user, while the influence of the parameter choice on the measurement result cannot be quantified. This leads to diverging and non-optimal scan results. The quality of the CT scan can only be evaluated afterwards, e.g. by visual inspection of the reconstructed volume. In this paper, an approach regarding projection based evaluation of CT image quality is presented. Different projection based quality measure are assessed, which enable the evaluation of the image quality before the actual measurement procedure is completed, such that the expected image quality of the scan can be pre-estimated. By means of the new method, adequate scanning parameters for each measuring task can be chosen beforehand, which can lead to a reduction of the measurement error.


[ 146 ] Krämer, A.; Stoll, J.; Blickle, D.; Boeker, B. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Analysis of wear behavior of stamping tools in the production of electrical steel sheets“. Proceedings of the 5th International Electric Drives Production Conference (E|DPC), Hrsg. IEEE, S. 295-301.
Abstract:
Rotor and stator stacks consist of laminated electrical steel sheets and represent the essential core components of an electric drive. These sheets are frequently made of non-grain-oriented electrical steel, fully finished, and produced by means of stamping. A cost efficient production requires prolonging tool life by reducing tool wear. Hence, the presented work aims at analyzing wear behavior of stamping tools in the process of stamping electrical steel sheets with baked varnish insulating coating. Based on stamping tests, a series of long-term experiments with initially sharp cutting elements made of hardened tool steel was conducted over a period of several hundred thousand punching strokes. The number of strokes was analyzed with regard to its effects upon defined abrasion parameters at the cutting edges as well as upon burr and cut surface at the produced electrical sheet.


[ 147 ] Lanza, G.; Bürgin, J.; Berger, D. & Peters, S. (2015), „Wie Industrie 4.0 die Steuerung von Produktion und Supply Chain verändern wird“. Controlling im digitalen Zeitalter - Herausforderungen und Best-Practice-Lösungen, Hrsg. Horvath, P. & Michel, U., S. 87-99.
Abstract:
Durch Industrie 4.0 lässt sich sowohl der Trend der individualisierten Produktdefinition, als auch der der echtzeitfähigen Produktionssteuerung realisieren. Sie ist ein nicht mehr aufzuhaltender Megatrend mit Elementen, deren Chancen und Risiken jedoch noch nicht voll umfänglich verstanden sind. Wesentliche Enabler sind dabei kostengünstige Sensorik sowie die Verfügbarkeit aller relevanten Informationen in Echtzeit durch Vernetzung der Akteure. Hinsichtlich standortübergreifender Prozesse bietet Industrie 4.0 durch die digitale Vernetzung eine vielversprechende Ausgangslage, um das Auftragsmanagement und die Steuerung globaler Produktionsnetzwerke und Supply Chains maßgeblich zu verbessern. Faktoren wie eine sichere Kommunikation und die Beibehaltung der Datensouveränität stellen hingegen Herausforderungen dar, die im Rahmen der Industrie 4.0 gelöst werden müssen, um langfristige Akzeptanz zu erreichen. Standardisierungsmaßnahmen müssen getroffen werden, die nicht nur den Ablauf von Informationserfassungs- und Auswerteprozessen betreffen, sondern ebenso den Umgang mit sicherheitstechnischen Fragestellungen. Ziele, die sich für den Produktionsstandort Deutschland daraus ergeben, sind der Erhalt der Vorreiterstellung in der Bruttowertschöpfung, sowie der Ausbau eines signifikanten Marktanteils in Bezug auf Lösungen der Industrie 4.0.


[ 148 ] Hochdörffer, J.; Arndt, T.; Bürgin, J.; Moser, E.; Scherb, M. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Evaluation of global manufacturing networks“. Proceedings of the 19th Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium, Hrsg. University of Cambridge, S. 327-339.
Abstract:
To remain competitive in an environment of emerging markets and increasing globalization, many companies in the manufacturing industry are facing challenges. Adding new production capacities or adapting existing production capacities of their manufacturing network becomes necessary to realize local production advantages and for serving new markets. In this regard, network configuration alternatives need to be evaluated according to the decision maker’s perspective. Thereby, the goal-orientation of each perspective has a fundamental influence on the design of manufacturing sites and their connections. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of different perspectives on design decisions of manufacturing net-works. Therefore, seven relevant perspectives are identified based on current trends in literature. In addition, more than 70 key performance indicators (KPIs) were identified and assigned to the different perspectives. Based on the reference point method and the analytical hierarchy process, a comprehensive approach is developed enabling the evaluation of manu-facturing network alternatives according to different perspectives and related KPIs. The KPI-based approach allows for adjustment to manufacturing network and target system specifics using weightings on perspective level and KPI level. The paper is concluded by demonstrating the functionality of the approach using an example.


[ 149 ] Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Funktionsorientierte Qualitätssicherung zur Lebensdauerprognose von Mikrozahnrädern“. Tagungsband zum 5. Kongress zur Getriebeproduktion (GETPRO), Hrsg. Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik e.V., S. 267-278.
Abstract:
Mikrogetriebe kommen heute in Kombination mit Mikromotoren in vielfältigen industriellen Anwendungen zum Einsatz. Beispiele stellen Dentalbohrer oder Ausrüstung für die mini-mal-invasive Chirurgie in der Medizintechnik, Hexapod-Mikropositionierungssysteme zur Waferbearbeitung im Bereich der industriellen Automatisierung oder verstellbare Automo-bilkomponenten wie Befestigungen von LCD-Monitoren dar. Mikrogetriebe bestehen aus Mikrozahnrädern mit einem Modul < 200 μm, die entscheidenden Einfluss auf die Funkti-onserfüllung der Getriebe haben. Um den gewünschten Betrieb der Mikrozahnräder zu gewährleisten, ist eine zuverlässige Vorhersage von deren Lebensdauer entscheidend. Bestehende Normen werden den Be-sonderheiten von Mikrozahnrädern hierfür jedoch nicht gerecht. Insbesondere weisen Mik-rozahnräder im Verhältnis zur Bauteilgröße deutlich höhere Fertigungsabweichungen auf, sodass ein größerer Einfluss dieses Einflussfaktors auf die Tragfähigkeit zu erwarten ist als bei Makrozahnrädern. In diesem Beitrag wird ein neuartiger Ansatz präsentiert, mit dem die Lebensdauer von Mik-rozahnrädern unter Berücksichtigung der Fertigungsabweichungen auf Basis von Lebens-dauerversuchen bewertet werden kann. Hierzu werden Zahnradpaarungen systematisch unter realitätsnahen, klar definierten Bedingungen ermüdet, bis ein Defekt an einem der Mikrozahnräder auftritt. Dies kann mit Hilfe einer hochpräzisen experimentellen Messan-ordnung durchgeführt werden. Vor und an definierten Zeitpunkten während der Versuchs-durchführung wird die 3D-Geometrie der Mikrozahnräder mittels eines hochgenauen Mikro-Koordinatenmessgeräts vollflächig gemessen. Auf Basis der geometrischen Messdaten werden FEM-Analysen der Zahnräder durchgeführt, um die charakteristischen Belastungen an den Zahnflanken zu berechnen. Aus den experimentellen Daten kann schließlich ein Modell zur Lebensdauerprognose unter Berücksichtigung der Ausfallwahrscheinlichkeit abgeleitet werden.


[ 150 ] Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Function-Oriented Measurements of Micro Gears for Lifetime Evaluation“. Proceedings of SENSOR 2015, S. 441-446.
Abstract:
Nowadays, micro transmissions are used in combination with micro motors in manifold industrial applications, e.g. in the medical industry in actively controlled prostheses. Micro transmissions consist of micro gears with a module < 200 μm. The main function of micro gears is a proper operation over the required lifetime. Lifetime evaluation is particularly important for micro gears, as the influence of geometric shape deviations is very large. Efficient production metrology is based on function-oriented measurements. Thus, in this article, a methodology is introduced to enable a function-oriented evaluation of micro gear measurements. For this purpose, high-precision 3D CMM measuring data are processed by finite element method (FEM) simulation to calculate the characteristic loads. These are correlated with experimental data of lifetime experiments.


[ 151 ] Haefner, B.; Quiring, M.; Gullasch, J.; Glaser, G. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Finite Element Simulation for Quality Dependent Lifetime Analysis of Micro Gears“. Procedia CIRP, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 41-46.
Abstract:
Nowadays, micro motors are used in combination with micro transmissions in manifold industrial applications such as dental drills or the equipment for minimally invasive surgery in the medical industry, hexapod micro positioning systems for wafer processing in the field of industrial automation or adjustable automotive components such as fixings of LCD monitors. Micro transmissions consist of micro gears, which are critical to their functionality. Micro gears are typically defined as gears with a module which is lower than 200 μm. To ensure proper operation of the micro gears for their expected purpose, a reliable prediction of their lifetime is crucial. Lifetime evaluation is particularly important for micro gears, as the influence of their geometric shape deviations on their load rating is significantly higher in comparison to gears with larger modules. This is a consequence of the larger shape deviations of micro gears in relation to their part size due to their manufacturing processes. The lifetime of micro gears can be evaluated by an experimental approach. Within this a pair of micro gears is systematically worn under realistic, clearly defined conditions, until a defect of one of the micro gears can be detected. This can be conducted by means of a highly precise experimental setup. In this article, a methodology to calculate the characteristic loads at the tooth flanks of the pair of micro gears during the experiments based on finite element analysis is introduced. For this purpose, CAD models of the real gear geometry of the specimen are deducted by means of high precision 3D measurements and spline interpolation. On the basis of these data, the lifetime of the micro gears dependent on their shape deviations can be predicted by means of a model based on reliability statistics.


[ 152 ] Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Quality Dependent Lifetime Prognosis of Micro Gears“. Proceedings International Conference on Gears 2015, Hrsg. VDI, S. 1-10.
Abstract:
Nowadays, micro motors are used in combination with micro transmissions in manifold industrial applications such as dental drills or the equipment for minimally invasive surgery. Micro transmissions consist of micro gears, which are critical to their functionality. To ensure proper operation of the micro gears for their expected purpose, a reliable prediction of their lifetime is crucial. Lifetime evaluation is particularly important for micro gears, as the influence of their geometric shape deviations on their load rating is significantly higher in comparison to gears with larger modules. In this article, a methodology is introduced to enable a quality dependent lifetime prognosis of micro gears. For this, micro gears are systematically operated by means of a highly precise experimental setup, until a defect of one of the gears can be detected. The characteristic loads at the tooth flanks during the experiments can be determined by means of finite element analysis based on CAD models of the real gear geometry of the specimen determined by accompanying 3D CMM measurements. These data can be statistically evaluated


[ 153 ] Lanza, G.; Moser, E.; Stoll, J. & Haefner, B. (2015), „Learning Factory on Global Production“. Procedia CIRP, Hrsg. Kreimeier, D., Elsevier, S. 120-125.
Abstract:
Based on the fundamental principle of teaching psychology that retentiveness increases if students actively apply learning topics rather than only attend oral or visual presentations, the concept of learning factories becomes more and more popular. Academic education in the field of production science is imparted by means of real-world manufacturing facilities. By applying the manufacturing process of a real product, students or professionals incorporate the learning contents effectively and gain consciousness about their practical implications. Most learning factories are focused on lean manufacturing, lean administration or resource efficiency. As today manufacturing is not only subject to a single factory, but a network of globally distributed production sites, at the wbk Institute of Production Science, currently, a learning factory dealing with the topic of global production is developed. On the one hand, the curriculum of the Learning Factory Global Production (LGP) involves the specifics of local production sites with different location factors, such as different degrees of automation, cost structures and qualification levels, and their effects on the reconfigurability of the production systems. On the other hand, the interaction of the production sites in a globally distributed production network and the strategic configuration of the network are also subject to the curriculum. The manufacturing processes are exemplified by the assembly of an automotive e-motor with transmission in the learning factory on global production. The learning factory is realized in cooperation with the Robert Bosch GmbH.


[ 154 ] Hochdörffer, J.; Berndt, C. V. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Resource-Based Reconfiguration of Manufacturing Networks Using a Product-to-Plant Allocation Methodology“. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Competitive Manufacturing, Hrsg. University of Stellenbosch, S. 511-516.
Abstract:
Given today’s demand for product variants in different market segments, manufacturing companies are facing high degrees of complexity when utilising existing global manufacturing networks. To remain competitive, reallocating production of product variants according to their lifecycle becomes essential in order to use resource capacities more efficiently. Therefore, companies must take into account costs and benefits of standardisation and specialisation of their production facilities to meet long-term corporate goals. An approach for allocating products to plants is sought that addresses the stated matters by allowing for reconfiguration of production networks, determining optimal flexibility levels of production facilities, and taking strategic guidelines into account. In this paper, a resource-based approach is introduced in which product variants and production resources are mapped to production processes in order to determine optimal configurations of the manufacturing network while considering restrictions. The approach will be applied to the final assembly of a large scale products’ manufacturer.


[ 155 ] Kopf, R.; Schlesinger, L.; Peters, S. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Adjusting the factory planning process when using immature technologies“. Proceedings of the 48th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, Hrsg. Teti, R., S. 1011-1016.
Abstract:
Due to shorter product-life-cycles, innovations in production engineering have to keep pace with today's technologies. As a result, factory planning is more and more challenged by technologies being immature for series production. Usually, these immature technologies place special demands on production layout and quality management, for example. These demands have to be considered in the factory planning process. Moreover, technologies are part of the production process that is created by a series of technologies. Hence, a planning process has to ensure that the positive aspects of a new technology are not negated by arrangements to protect the technology chain against failure due to immature technologies. With Selective Laser Melting (SLM) used as example for an additive manufacturing technology, this paper presents a method of planning a production system by taking the technology maturity into account. Possible requirements of an immature technology interacting with the process chain will be addressed as well as adjustments to be made to the factory planning process.


[ 156 ] Arndt, T. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Planning Support for the Design of Quality Control Strategies in Global Production Networks“. Procedia CIRP, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 675-680.
Abstract:
The increasing globalization forces manufacturing companies to organize their production in global networks, which include company internal sites as well as locations of external partners and suppliers. Each site in this network has an assigned strategic role according to the specific location factors, i.e. qualification level of employees or available process technology, and the defined specialization of each site, i.e. regarding served market, final product or realized processes. This role defines an individual target system that considers at least the dimensions cost, quality and time. Each site acts autonomously according to the target system. Since it is crucial for the success of the company to ensure the demanded quality of the final product with minimal cumulated quality costs and lead times, the quality control strategy for the production network has to be designed according to the target systems of the individual sites. The presented article describes an approach, which enables globally operating companies to efficiently plan their efforts for their quality control measures in their respective production network taking the specific site roles into account. In a first step, a value-stream-based methodology is presented, which visualizes quality characteristics as well as related quality inspections in the production process chain and which identifies potentials in the quality control strategy across locations. In a second step a simulation approach is used to evaluate the effects of different quality measures considering dynamic influencing factors and individual target systems, so that the optimal quality control strategy for the production network can be identified.


[ 157 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Schulze, V.; Sauer, A. & Sell-Le Blanc, F. (2012), „Produktionstechnische Herausforderungen der Elektromobilität“. Tagungsband zur wbk-Herbsttagung 2011, Hrsg. Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G. & Schulze, V., Springer VDI Verlag, S. 16.
Abstract:
Die wbk-Herbsttagung hat sich als wichtigste jährliche Veranstaltung am wbk etabliert. Dieses Jahr fand sie am 27. Oktober 2011 zum Thema „Produktions-technische Herausforderungen der Elektromobilität“ statt. Hintergrund für die Themenwahl ist der Wandel in der Mobilität von rein auf Verbrennung basierten Antriebskonzepten hin zu voll-elektrischen Fahrzeugen und den damit verbundenen Speichertechnologien.


[ 158 ] Arndt, T.; Buderer, C.; Hofmann, M. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Simulation-Based Evaluation of Quality Control Strategies in Global Manufacturing Networks“. Advanced Materials Research, Hrsg. TransTech Publications, S. 473-480.
Abstract:
In the context of an increased globalisation of sales and procurement markets companies are distributing their manufacturing activities in global networks. A key challenge is to ensure the overall production quality despite distributed value creation processes in complex manufacturing networks. Hence, a simulation model is presented, which allows for an evaluation of quality control strategies in global manufacturing networks. Based on the approach of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), which is enhanced by quality-relevant elements, a simulation approach is developed to dynamically evaluate different quality control strategies taking the individual target systems and site roles of the involved partners in the manufacturing network into account.


[ 159 ] Treber, S.; Moser, E. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Workforce Flexibility in Production Networks: Mid-Term Capacity Planning Illustrated by an Example of the Automotive Industry“. Advanced Materials Research, Hrsg. Trans Tech Publications, S. 427-434.
Abstract:
Modern globalization is characterized by a production in networks. With an increasingly dynamic business environment, the focus of production planning shifts to network management. This paper presents a method for managing production networks. The emphasis is on capacity planning and the use of instruments that render the staff more flexible. The methodology also integrates an approach to hedge against the risk of systematic errors in forecasting the market demand.


[ 160 ] Krämer, A.; Batra, A. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Development of test bodies for deployment in industrial Computed Tomography“. Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Industrial Computed Tomography (iCT) 2016, Hrsg. NDT.net, S. 1-8.
Abstract:
For calibration and performance assessment of industrial CT devices, reference objects can be used. This paper presents three unique test bodies comprising of distinctive geometric characteristics and traits resembling those that are often exhibited by real industrial components. The framework for the conception and development process of these objects is based on a systematic approach to ascertain the geometry, dimensions and suitable materials for the final test bodies. The specimens are designed to cover all common geometric tolerances in addition to dimensional measures. Moreover, the distinctive properties and features exhibited by each of the three designs, along with an allowance for a comprehensive geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) analysis, challenge different aspects of the CT process. To ensure traceability, the test bodies are calibrated with high accuracy micro coordinate metrology. Therefore, a data evaluation strategy is discussed, which allows the comparison of data points from the tactile measurement to the extracted surface of the CT measurement.


[ 161 ] Krämer, A. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Assessment of the measurement procedure for dimensional metrology with X-ray computed tomography“. Procedia CIRP, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 1-6.
Abstract:
X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a promising technology for quality assurance of industrial parts. However, computed tomography for dimensional metrology is a complex and indirect measurement procedure, whose results depend on a variety of influencing factors. To ensure that a measurement is traceable back to the basic SI units, a statement about the measurement uncertainty has to be given together with the actual measurement result. A generally accepted method for uncertainty evaluation is the use of calibrated workpieces. However, the influencing factors throughout the measurement procedure that contribute to the uncertainty are not quantified individually and remain unknown. The quality and reliability of the measurement, expressed in measurement uncertainty, hereby depends on hard- and software as well as user-set scan parameters. Not only scan parameters, such as current, tube voltage or exposure time, can influence the measurement results, but also surface determination and geometrical evaluation of the measured features add to the measurement uncertainty. In this contribution, the measurement procedure for metrological computed tomography is assessed and influencing factors throughout the different steps in the measurement procedure are identified as well as quantified. The approach is used to analyze the data quality of different measurements with a test object. The CT data are compared to tactile calibration data of the object and an experimental uncertainty evaluation is given.


[ 162 ] Kraemer, A. .; Stoll, J.; Blickle, D.; Boeker, B. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Analysis of wear behavior of stamping tools in the production of electrical steel sheets“. Proceedings, Hrsg. IEEE, S. 295-301.
Abstract:
Rotor and stator stacks consist of laminated electrical steel sheets and represent the essential core components of an electric drive. These sheets are frequently made of nongrain- oriented electrical steel, fully finished, and produced by means of stamping. A cost efficient production requires prolonging tool life by reducing tool wear. Hence, the presented work aims at analyzing wear behavior of stamping tools in the process of stamping electrical steel sheets with baked varnish insulating coating. Based on stamping tests, a series of long-term experiments with initially sharp cutting elements made of hardened tool steel was conducted over a period of several hundred thousand punching strokes. The number of strokes was analyzed with regard to its effects upon defined abrasion parameters at the cutting edges as well as upon burr and cut surface at the produced electrical sheet.


[ 163 ] Krämer, A. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Methodology for the evaluation of CT image quality in dimensional metrology“. Proceedings of the 19th World Conference on Non-Destructive Testing, Hrsg. DGZFP, S. 1-7.
Abstract:
In the last years, x-ray computed tomography (CT) has gained more and more importance in metrology. However, computed tomography is a complex and indirect measurement procedure. Many factors contribute to the measurement result, which makes it difficult for the user to relate cause and effect. For example, the user-set scan parameters significantly influence the measurement result. However, the selection of scan parameters is still based on the experience of the CT user, while the influence of the parameter choice on the measurement result cannot be quantified. This leads to diverging and non-optimal scan results. The quality of the CT scan can only be evaluated afterwards, e.g. by visual inspection of the reconstructed volume. Taking into account that the process chain of CT measurements is highly complex, the very first step is the generation of reliable high quality projections that can then be fed into the reconstruction. The quality of these projections can be described quantitatively by image quality measures. Thus, in this paper, an approach regarding projection based evaluation of CT image quality in micro computed tomography is presented. By performing a set of experiments, the influence of projection image quality on the reconstructed volume and respectively on the measurement result is evaluated. A derived model relates the projection quality measures to the actual measurement error of the CT scan. Hence, the proposed approach defines a reliable, combined quality measure, which is based on a small number of projections acquired before the actual scan. An algorithm evaluates the quality of those projection for every workpiece that has to be measured. Based on the evaluation, it varies the scan parameters, until an optimal projection quality is reached and a reduced measurement error in the CT scan is achieved.


[ 164 ] Krämer, A.; Böhmler, P. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Optimierung von Aufnahmeparametern mittels projektionsbasierter Qualitätskenngrößen in der industriellen Computertomographie“. Tagungsband der 18. GMA/ITG-Fachtagung Sensoren und Messsysteme, Hrsg. AMA Verband für Sensorik und Messtechnik e.V., S. 1-8.
Abstract:
Die Röntgen-Computertomographie gewinnt in der industriellen Messtechnik immer mehr an Bedeutung. Allerdings sind das Messergebnis und die dazugehörige Messabweichung stark von der Wahl der Aufnahmeparameter abhängig, die durch den Anwender getroffen wird. Daher wird eine Methodik vorgestellt, die eine automatisierte Einstellung der Aufnahmeparameter mit dem Ziel einer jeweils verringerten Messabweichung ermöglicht. Mithilfe von Bildqualitätsparametern kann die Bildqualität von Einzelprojektionen bewertet und diese im Rahmen eines experimentellen Modells mit der merkmalspezifischen Messabweichung der Einzelmessung am rekonstruierten 3D-Volumen verknüpft werden. Aus dem Modell kann dann die optimale Bildqualität der Einzelprojektionen abgeleitet werden, auf deren Basis dann automatisiert und messaufgabenspezifisch ein bauteil- und geräteabhängiges Set an optimalen Aufnahmeparametern bestimmt wird. Die hierfür notwendige Beurteilung der Bildqualität von Einzelprojektionen kann nur mit objektiven Kennwerten erfolgen. Im Beitrag werden daher verschiedene Kenngrößen zur Bewertung der Bildqualität vorgestellt und auf ihre Anwendbarkeit in der Computertomographie überprüft.


[ 165 ] Lanza, G. & Krämer, A. (2016), „Supporting the user in dimensional computed tomography by projection based optimization of scan parameters“. Technical Presentation, Hrsg. CIRP General Assembly - STC P, S. 1-16.
Abstract:
Computed tomography for dimensional metrology is a complex measurement procedure with a variety of influencing factors. Starting from the single projection towards data processing of the measured data, for each measuring task an individual set of parameters has to be chosen accordingly. The quality and reliability of the measurement, expressed in measurement uncertainty, depends on hard- and software as well as user-set scan parameters. However, the selection of scan parameters, such as current, tube voltage or exposure time, is nowadays based on the experience of the CT user, while the influence of the individual parameter choice on the measurement still cannot be quantified. For this purpose, a methodology has been developed that optimizes the scan parameters for individual components. The approach is based on the quality of single projections representing the very first step in the process chain of CT measurements. The influence of the image quality of the individual projections on the reconstructed volume and respectively on the measurement result is evaluated by experimental design. To ensure traceability, the used test bodies are calibrated with high accuracy coordinate metrology. The extracted surface of the CT volume is compared to the data points from the tactile measurement and the deviation for each measurand is calculated. Then, these deviations are related to the image quality of the respective projections. Based on the derived experimental model, an algorithm finds adequate scanning parameters for each measuring task, which can lead to a reduction of the measurement error.


[ 166 ] Greinacher, S.; Moser, E.; Freier, J.; Müller, J. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Simulation-based methodology for the application of lean and green strategies depending on external change driver influence“. -, Hrsg. Seliger, G. & Krüger, J., S. 242-247.
Abstract:
Globalization, growing environmental awareness as well as rising and volatile resource prices contribute to an increasingly uncertain Business environment in manufacturing. It is impossible to consider all future developments of external influences when planning and setting up a new manufacturing system. Therefore, companies must react with constant change and readjustment. This paper presents an approach based on simulation and design of experiments for the identification of suitable improvement strategies that counteract negative effects of external change drivers in discrete manufacturing systems. It covers selection of an effective strategy under consideration of its impacts. Thereupon, the ideal intervention threshold for the implementation of the selected strategy is derived. The methodology is applied to an ideal typical production line.


[ 167 ] Arndt, T.; Lemmerer, C.; Sihn, W. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Target system based design of quality control strategies in global production networks“. Procedia CIRP (50C), Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 331-336.
Abstract:
Increasing globalization drives companies to produce in global networks, where each site acts autonomously according to its individual target system, influenced by specific location factors or its defined specialization. Despite distributed value creation processes, the overall production quality must be ensured. Hence, a simulation-based approach is presented, which allows for designing an optimal across-site quality control strategy by evaluating different quality measures depending on individual target systems of different sites. At first, a categorization of quality measures and an applicable target system model are presented. Secondly, a simulation approach is described to evaluate implemented measures according to defined performance indicators.


[ 168 ] Bürgin, J.; Blättchen, P.; Qu, C. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Assignment of Customer-Specific Orders to Plants with Mixed-Model Assembly Lines in Global Production Networks“. Creative Design of Products and Production Systems , Hrsg. Procedia CIRP 50, S. 330-335.
Abstract:
Build-to-order series production is gaining increasing importance as markets demand customer-specific product variants. Orders have to be assigned to plants and periods in global production networks and then to lines and cycles. Consequently, respective workloads as well as supplied materials have to be balanced due to limitations in resource capacities. As first step planning defines the solution space for second step planning, this paper introduces a mathematical model for order assignments to plants and periods anticipating assignments to lines and cycles. Given that orders are not fully specified for first step planning, the approach includes provisions for dealing with uncertainty.


[ 169 ] Belkadi, F.; Bürgin, J.; Gupta, R. K.; Zhang, Y.; Bernard, A.; Lanza, G.; Colledani, M. & Urgo, M. (2016), „Co-Definition of Product Structure and Production Network for Frugal Innovation Perspectives: Towards a Modular-based Approach “. Creative Design of Products and Production Systems , Hrsg. Procedia CIRP 50, S. 589-594.
Abstract:
Frugal innovation theory is proposed to help companies rethinking their current product design and production strategies facing competitive challenges. Co-evolution of product and production systems is required to reach frugality goals. The success of the co-evolution strategy should be based on robust models ensuring the global consistency of the whole development process. Modular-based models are a good solution for such problematics since they provide a common semantic for the representation of the physical product structure as well as the organizational structure of the production system through the definition of interfaces between elements and the hierarchical decomposition of a system into different elements. This paper proposes a conceptual modular-based approach dealing with the selection of product modules influencing the selection of suppliers and the allocation of orders in a global production network. The indirect linking of the customer to production is also discussed in terms of the timewise restrictions in selecting product modules offering the customer a maximum degree of flexibility in product specification.


[ 170 ] Moser, E.; Stricker, N.; Liebrecht, C.; Hiller, A.; Ziegler, M. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Migration Planning for Global Production Networks using Markovian Decision Processes“. IFAC-PapersOnLine, Hrsg. International Federation of Automatic Control, S. 35-40.
Abstract:
Modern globalization leads companies into a changing environment with a highly uncertain future development of key drivers of change. Especially, global production networks are affected by uncertainty and dynamic changes. Reactiveness becomes of crucial importance, as the adaptation to environmental conditions is the key to maintain competitive advantages. This article presents an approach for flexible migration planning in global production networks. The focus is on the formulation of a Markovian Decision Process (MDP) that enables the identification of optimal reactions to stochastic changes of key drivers of change. The formulation includes the description of a multi-level modelling approach for global production networks. Furthermore the valuation model of the reward function of the MDP is discussed in detail. Finally, the paper provides a brief description of exemplary optimization results solving the MDP by backward induction.


[ 171 ] Stricker, N.; Moser, E. & Lanza, G. (2016), „The concept of Robustness in Production Systems“. Enterprise Interoperability in the Digitized and Networked Factory of the Future, Hrsg. I-ESA, S. 395-401.
Abstract:
The current production environment is characterized by increasing dynamics. Given these volatile production conditions, robustness becomes an ever more important characteristic for production systems. The robustness shall ensure successful production in a varying production environment. Robustness therefore is a compromise between stable and efficient production systems. The concept of robustness as a characteristic of production systems will be regarded in this paper. Besides the pure concept, the entities influencing robustness will be analyzed. The main factors herein are the regarded system parameters, the regarded time-frame and the range of disturbances. These factors strongly affect the performance of a production system. For a proper analysis of a production system’s robustness, the given factors need to be specified. Therefor a general framework of robustness will be presented in the paper. The regarded robustness can be classified using the framework. Given this prerequisite, the robustness can be analyzed regarding the performance behavior a production system exposed to a dynamic environment. The performance behavior will lead to possible measures for production system robustness.


[ 172 ] Krämer, A.; Veigel, M.; Pontner, P.; Doppelbauer, M. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Influences of separation and joining processes on single tooth laminated stacks“. Proceedings of the 6th International Electric Drives Production Conference (E|DPC), Hrsg. IEEE, S. 1-8.
Abstract:
Rotor and stator stacks consist of laminated electrical steel sheets and represent the essential components of an electric drive. The process chain for the production of laminated stacks comprises two core steps: first, the separation of the final contour of the electrical sheets and second, the joining of individual sheets to a laminated stack. Both steps can be executed by different technologies. In this contribution, the influence of the separation technologies stamping and laser cutting on material properties of the individual sheets were investigated. In addition, different joining possibilities for stacking of the electrical sheets were also part of the study. Here, gluing, interlocking, baked varnish joining and laser welding were considered. For the laminated stack, a single tooth geometry was chosen, which was produced in three different lengths. In addition, a wide variety of sheet material was used - given a range of material thicknesses between 0.1 and 0.35 mm. Sheets and single teeth were measured with respect to their mechanical, geometrical and electro-magnetic properties, respectively. The measurements of the sheets, for instance, comprised burr height, contour and microhardness. In all stamped materials a significant increase in microhardness could be seen at the stamped edge. The geometrical properties of the laminated stack, namely dimensions, form and orientation are relevant for the assembly of the electric drive and were measured with tactile coordinate metrology. These measurements showed that gluing as well as stamping lead to an increase of manufacturing variances with increasing length of the laminated stacks. On the other hand, baked varnish stacking showed very stable results with low deviations. Laser welding showed good results as well in the geometric measurements. Depending on the application, laser welding can thus be seen as future alternative to common stacking technologies. The measurement of the electro-magnetic properties revealed a higher increase in power loss on stacks produced from laser cut sheets than on those made from stamped material. This difference was visible only on measurements of stacked sheets such as laminated ring cores or single teeth. Non-laminated sheets measured at the Epstein frame showed no difference in deterioration of the electro-magnetic properties between both separation technologies.


[ 173 ] Veigel, M.; Krämer, A.; Lanza, G. & Doppelbauer, M. (2016), „Investigation of the Impact of Production Processes on Iron Losses of Laminated Stator Cores for Electric Machines“. Proceedings of the IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exhibition (ECCE), Hrsg. IEEE, S. 1-4.
Abstract:
To further improve the power density of modern electric drive technologies many motor designers decide to increase the rotational speed of the motor up to several tens of thousands revolutions per minute. Along with these high frequencies of the fundamental wave of the flux density inside the laminated stator cores, the electromagnetic strain of the core and the importance of the iron losses are increasing. Due to this, the high amount of different mechanisms, responsible for these iron losses, need to be identified and associated to the appropriate production process. For this reason, a suitable and inline-capable electromagnetic measuring method is used to determine the iron losses for real motor stator core geometries and to separate the impact of different production steps. In this paper, the large number of manufacturing methods for stator cores is presented and the iron losses are assigned to the corresponding production step in an overall consideration. The cause of the measured losses are identified and described. The mentioned measuring adapter can also be used to monitor a specific assembly line with regard to separation and joining quality to represent an innovative and economic possibility of quality assurance


[ 174 ] Yang, S.; Arndt, T. & Lanza, G. (2016), „A flexible simulation support for production planning and control in small and medium enterprises“. Procedia CIRP 56, Hrsg. Elservier, S. 389-394.
Abstract:
For efficient, effective and economical production operation management in a manufacturing unit of an organization, it is essential to integrate the production planning and control system into an enterprise resource planning. Today’s planning systems suffer from a low range in planning data which results in unrealistic delivery times. One of the root causes is that production is influenced by uncertainties such as machine breakdowns, quality issues and the scheduling principle. Hence, it is necessary to model and simulate production planning and controls (PPC) with information dynamics in order to analyze the risks that are caused by multiple uncertainties. In this context, a new approach to simulate PPC systems is exposed in this paper, which aims at visualizing the production process and comparing key performance indicators (KPIs) as well as optimizing PPC parameters under different uncertainties in order to deal with potential risk consuming time and effort. Firstly, a production system simulation is created to quickly obtain different KPIs (e.g. on time delivery rate, quality, cost, machine utilization, WIP) under different uncertainties, which can be flexibly set by users. Secondly, an optimization experiment is conducted to optimize the parameters of PPC with regard to the different KPIs. An industrial case study is used to demonstrate the applicability and the validity of the proposed approach.


[ 175 ] Kopf, R.; Lingen, A. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Developing the process chain of selective laser melting towards a cost efficient series production“. Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Additive Technologies, Hrsg. Drstvenšek, I.; Drummer, D. & Schmidt, M., S. 368-376.
Abstract:
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) offers great potential for a cost-effective response to individualized customer requirements as well as the realization of a lightweight design due to SLM's tool-free design. Yet, one of the main barriers for the use of this technology in a series production environment is the high production cost. Existing approaches to reduce production costs have only been focusing on increasing the build-up speed of the additive manufacturing process. To enable SLM for series production it is essential that the whole production chain including the design of the SLM system will be optimized. In this paper, a simulation model is developed that aims to evaluate the cost efficiency of SLM process chains including all pre- and post-processing step. The implemented cost model allows for the identification of the main levers to optimize the system configuration and consequently the development and evaluation of new concepts for SLM machines. Preliminary results indicate that modular concepts realize a higher throughput, a better utilization of resources and therefore lower costs compared to integrated SLM machine concepts. Furthermore, the results point to the challenge of a smooth production in case of builds consisting of a high number of small parts.


[ 176 ] Bürgin, J.; Beisecker, J.; Fischer, S.; Geier, B.; Tutsch, H.; Mercamp, S. & Lanza, G. (2017), „Generation of Planned Orders and their Matching with Customer Orders in Multi-variant Series Production“. The 24th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Hrsg. Procedia CIRP, S. 499-504.
Abstract:
Sustainability of production and supply chains can be achieved by efficient planning. However, customers’ demand for multi-variant products and short lead times poses a challenge for automobile manufacturers not receiving customer orders in the mid-term planning horizon. To meet this uncertainty, this paper shall introduce an approach for anticipating customer orders by generating planned orders and for matching planned orders with incoming customer orders. Planned orders enable the integration of sales planning, production planning and material requirements planning in the mid-term and short-term planning horizons. In conclusion, resources can be used more efficiently to fulfill customer needs.


[ 177 ] Bürgin, J.; Echsler Minguillon, F.; Wehrle, F.; Häfner, B. & Lanza, G. (2017), „Demonstration of a Concept for Scalable Automation of Assembly Systems in a Learning Factory“. 7th Conference on Learning Factories, CLF 2017, Hrsg. Procedia Manufacturing, S. 111-118.
Abstract:
Companies operating assembly systems in global production networks constantly have to deal with change drivers. For the design of adaptable assembly systems, change drivers can be considered as fluctuating KPIs, such as labor costs, as well as changing KPI targets, such as rising quality requirements. In this paper, a concept for the design of changeable assembly lines with scalable automation is introduced and applied to the Learning Factory Global Production at KIT. The change of the automation level over time is based on an ex ante evaluation and ex post performance assessment of the impact of change drivers.


[ 178 ] Zaiß, M.; Jank, M.; Netzelmann, U.; Waschkies, T.; Rabe, U.; Hermann, H.; Thompson, M. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Use of thermography and ultrasound for the quality control of SMC lightweight material reinforced by carbon fiber tapes“. Procedia CIRP, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 33-38.
Abstract:
Growing requirements of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) parts make new material combinations necessary. One strategy is to reinforce SMC with unidirectional carbon fiber tapes to improve its mechanical properties. As quality assessment of cured parts is necessary, examination of semi-finished materials would be favorable. Two types of nondestructive testing methods, Thermography and Ultrasound, are compared to determine the best control method. These methods are examined on cured plates and semi-finished material to identify defects like air inclusions, delamination, misaligned fibers and microstructural changes. The focus of this paper is an assessment of the testing methods for the manufacturing process.


[ 179 ] Zaiß, M.; Demmerle, J.; Oergele, J. & Lanza, G. (2017), „New concepts for quality assurance of lightweight material“. Procedia CIRP, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 259-264.
Abstract:
Lightweight material became more and more important during the last years. To ensure a defect-free production, effective measurement solutions for quality assurance are necessary. The Laser stripe sensors enable the evaluation of form deviations. For the detection of internal defects thermography provides a suitable solution. On this account the combination of these two non-destructive testing principles gives an opportunity to detect different kinds of defects regarding the outer geometry and the material within the parts. This paper deals with varied concepts to combine laser stripe sensor system and thermography and shows the potential of these methods.


[ 180 ] Liebrecht, C.; Hochdörffer, J.; Treber, S.; Moser, E.; Erbacher, T.; Gidion, G. & Lanza, G. (2017), „Concept development for the verification of the didactic competence promotion for the Learning Factory on Global Production“. Procedia Manufacturing, Hrsg. Elsevier B.V., S. 315-322.
Abstract:
Professional action-related competence of employees plays an increasingly important role for globally operating manufacturing companies to remain competitive. Furthermore, the Bologna process calls for a paradigm change in higher education by placing greater emphasis on the learning process and learner. In order to meet both requirements within the framework of academic teaching and further education, a novel training concept was developed and utilized at wbk’s practical and engineering-oriented Learning Factory on Global Production (LGP). The concept aims promoting professional and methodological competencies. Based on specified teaching and learning objectives, indicators are defined to make the promotion of these competencies ascertainable.


[ 181 ] Liebrecht, C.; Jacob, A.; Kuhnle, A. & Lanza, G. (2017), „Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Manufacturing Systems 4.0 under Uncertainty“. Procedia CIRP, Hrsg. Elsevier Ltd , S. 224-229.
Abstract:
Introducing Manufacturing Systems 4.0 is essential for the existence of competing industrial companies. Nevertheless, knowledge about benefits of Manufacturing Solutions 4.0 is limited. This paper introduces an approach to evaluate Manufacturing Systems 4.0. Uncertainty is integrated via fuzzy set theory and stochastic models. The financial impact of non-monetary criteria is directly modelled. A Monte-Carlo Simulation aggregates criteria in a probability distribution of the projects net present value (NPV). Comparing distributions of different alternatives determines the most favorable alternative and analyses potential and risk. Through this concept understanding of Manufacturing Systems 4.0 is improved and their benefits are displayed comprehensively.


[ 182 ] Fisel, J.; Arslan, A. & Lanza, G. (2017), „Changeability focused planning method for multi model assembly systems in automotive industry“. Manufacturing Systems 4.0 – Proceedings of the 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, Hrsg. CIRP CMS, S. 515-520.
Abstract:
Series vehicle production is designed to produce effectively at a defined number of vehicles per period. Regarding market forecasts the overall market trend depicts an increasing demand for electrified vehicles within an uncertain propulsion concept vehicle mix. This demand cannot be predicted precisely because of volatile influencing factors such as governmental subsidies. Automotive companies are therefore confronted with the challenge of rapidly adapting their production systems accordingly. An approach to handle the variety of models within vehicle final assembly is to establish mixed model assembly lines. Since single model assembly lines are optimized for a specific production volume of one model, the subsequent integration of vehicles using alternative propulsion concepts into single model assembly lines stands as a great challenge in final assembly. Moreover, producing with optimal configured assembly systems after integrating an additional model is not ensured further on. To address this challenge, an approach for the greenfield planning of assembly lines using the concept of changeability is presented within this paper. The presented approach offers a new method to cover uncertainty regarding the future propulsion concept mix of assembly lines. This affects the initial setup of an assembly line concerning the line balancing and assembly equipment as possible subsequent changes to the assembly system increase costs. The target conflict is to minimize changes to the assembly system due to the integration of further propulsion concepts while ensuring cost efficient assembly. Hereto, the line balancing problem is solved for a fixed production volume ratio using a developed optimization algorithm. Thereafter, the production volume ratios are varied in order to identify an optimal solution for line balancing and assembly equipment. The uncertainty of volume ratios is considered in the integrated costs calculation module.


[ 183 ] Fisel, J. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Planning approach for a changeable multi model assembly system“. Proceedings of 6th international Electric Drives Production Conference , Hrsg. EDPC, S. 212-216.
Abstract:
The overall market trend depicts an increasing demand for electric or hybrid vehicles. This demand cannot be predicted precisely because of volatile influencing factors. Automotive companies are therefore confronted with the challenge of rapidly adapting their production systems accordingly. An approach to handle the variety of models within final assembly is to establish mixed model assembly lines. The subsequent integration of vehicles using alternative propulsion concepts into single model assembly lines stands as a great challenge in final assembly. Within this paper, an approach for the greenfield planning of assembly lines using the concept of changeability is presented. The approach focusses on the integration of a new propulsion concept in an existing assembly line. Hereto, the line allocation problem is solved for a fixed production volume ratio using an optimization algorithm. Thereafter, the production volume ratios are varied in order to identify an optimal solution for line balancing and assembly equipment.


[ 184 ] Stähr, T.; Ungermann, F. & Lanza, G. (2017), „Scalable assembly for fuel cell production“. 7. WGP-Jahreskongress Aachen, 5.-6. Oktober 2017, Hrsg. Schmitt, R. & Schuh, G., S. 303-311.
Abstract:
The reduced time-to-market and multiple innovations lead to a rising number of emerging technologies and new products. Production systems for emerging technologies are subject to high stress from highly volatile influencing factors such as volume and variants. In order to react to these factors and to achieve cost-efficient production, companies need to establish scalable production systems. This paper introduces a methodology which supports the production planner with an iterative planning method for a scalable production system focussing on the scalability of the level of automation. The methodology consists of four steps. Its basis constitutes in a scenario analysis of the influencing factors for the production system. In the next step, alternative configurations of the production system are generated. From the different configurations, possible scaling paths are derived in accordance with the scenarios. The final step focusses on identifying the optimal scaling paths according to production cost and risk. The methodology will be demonstrated with the use case of fuel cell production within the European research project INLINE.


[ 185 ] Hochdörffer, J.; Laule, C. & Lanza, G. (2017), „Product Variety Management Using Data-Mining Methods“. Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), Hrsg. IEEE, S. 1-5.
Abstract:
In decision making problems regarding production network design, product variety oriented planning of network structures and capacities is indispensable. Due to increasing product variety, related planning tasks have become more complex to account for the significantly varying production requirements of product variants. To create a consolidated and expressive decision basis, a methodology to apply cluster analysis on product portfolios is developed in this paper. The introduced clustering method is able to handle production process-related binary data and production capacity-related metric data simultaneously. By applying this method, the product portfolio is partitioned into clusters so that variants within a cluster have similar requirements regarding production capabilities and capacities. The developed method is applied to two data sets resulting in more efficient and more accurate problem solving in comparison to established clustering methods.


[ 186 ] Wagner, R.; Kuhnle, A. & Lanza, G. (2017), „Optimising Matching Strategies for High Precision Products by Functional Models and Machine Learning Algorithms “. WGP-Jahreskongress, Hrsg. Schmitt, R. & Schuh, G., S. 1-9.
Abstract:
Companies are confronted with increasing product quality requirements to manufacture high quality products, close to technological limits, in a cost-effective way. Matching of assembly components offers an approach to cope with this challenge by means of adapted production strategies. To satisfy and optimize precise functionality requirements a model that integrates process variation and functionality is applied to enhance existing matching strategies. This paper demonstrates the implementation of functional models within production strategies for fuel injector systems. The injector system must fulfil high requirements regarding the functionality, i.e. providing a homogeneous fuel mixture at a constant level. To enhance matching strategies and the functional models for the assembled components, a machine learning algorithm will be applied. This model is utilized to determine and quantify a model for the functional relation between pre-process variations and product functionality and to optimize matching strategies by selecting the relevant features.


[ 187 ] Liebrecht, C.; Schwind, J.; Grahm, M. & Lanza, G. (2017), „A three-step transformation process for the implementation of Manufacturing Systems 4.0 in medium-sized enterprises“. 7. WGP-Jahreskongress, Hrsg. Schmitt, R. & Schuh, G., S. 261-270.
Abstract:
Introducing Manufacturing Systems 4.0 (MS4.0) is essential for the competitiveness of industrial companies. Nevertheless, their knowledge about the digitalization of manufacturing and the transition process is limited. This paper shows a structured way to plan, evaluate and implement MS4.0. This paper uses a three-step approach: In the first and second step different MS4.0 applications are structured and the interactions in between them are analyzed. The paper focusses on the third step, where a comprehensive method to evaluate different applications of MS4.0 and the Balanced Scorecard to support a coordinated and structured implementation of MS4.0 applications are introduced.


[ 188 ] Lorenz, R.; Lorentzen, K.; Stricker, N. & Lanza, G. (2018), „Applying User Stories for a customer-driven Industry 4.0 Transformation“. Proceedings of 16th IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing, Hrsg. IFAC .
Abstract:
This paper provides a procedure to support organizations transforming towards Industry 4.0. We suggest that current models do not put sufficient emphasis on avoiding the development of redundant solutions and the focus on customer needs. The presented procedure therefore enables organizations to address the customer requirements with digital solutions without creating redundancy. A database of requirements an organization already fulfills and wants to see fulfilled in the future is set up by applying the user story method. These stories are tagged with attributes derived from literature. A clustering algorithm then analyses the stories in terms of similarity. This analysis reveals, first, redundant functions within the solutions and, second, suggestions about how to address unfulfilled requirements. The paper provides a case study in which the procedure is applied. The results show that large organizations already roll out redundant Industry 4.0 solutions and that the procedure can help avoiding them.


[ 189 ] Jacob, A.; Windhuber, K.; Ranke, D. & Lanza, G. (2018), „Planning, Evaluation and Optimization of Product Design and Manufacturing Technology Chains for New Product and Production Technologies on the Example of Additive Manufacturing“. 28th CIRP Design Conference 2018, 23-25 May 2018, Nantes, France, Hrsg. Procedia CIRP, S. 108-113.
Abstract:
New emerging technologies challenge companies to adapt their product design and production processes constantly. This paper presents an approach that enables companies to manage new technologies by optimizing interdependent product design parameters and manufacturing technology chains. A product is modularized and modelled via parameter sets. Manufacturing technologies are described in a similar model. Possible manufacturing technologies for this product are identified and combined to technology chains. Based on a multi-criteria evaluation, critical product and manufacturing technology parameters are identified and the impact of adapting these parameters is quantified, thus enabling recursive optimization of product and manufacturing technology chain. Thereby, companies can manage new product and manufacturing technologies by assessing their implications and future potential.


Referierte Beiträge in Büchern und monographischen Reihen

[ 1 ] Lanza, G.; Fleischer, J. & Ruch, D. (2007), „Flexible und intelligente Greiftechnik“ in Fortschtritt-Berichte VDI, Hrsg. VDI, VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, S. 371-396. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-18-366102-2
Abstract:
Das bereits beschriebene Verfahren des Rundens beim Strangpressen ermöglicht die wirtschaftliche Herstellung räumlich gekrümmter Strangpressprofile und damit die Herstellung leichter Tragwerkstrukturen in kleinen Stückzahlen. Für eine an den Strangpressprozess anschließende Prozesskette zur automatisierten Be- und Weiterverarbeitung der einzelnen Profile zu einer kompletten Rahmenstruktur ist eine flexible und intelligente Greiftechnik zur Handhabung und Bearbeitung der Profile von zentraler Bedeutung. Diese Greiftechnik bildet die Schnittstelle zwischen den einzelnen Prozessen der Gesamtprozesskette. Im folgenden Artikel werden zunächst die aus einer flexiblen Profilbearbeitung und Handhabung heraus resultierenden Anforderungen an eine prozessübergreifende Greiftechnik dargestellt. Darauf aufbauend wird die Vergehensweise zur Ableitung eines Lösungsansatzes am Beispiel der produktflexiblen Bearbeitung räumlich gekrümmter Profile vorgestellt. Im Anschluss an die Ableitung eines Gesamtkonzepts, bestehend aus einer flexiblen Greiftechnik und einer kombinierten Handhabungsund Bearbeitungskinematik, werden die Funktion und der konstruktive Aufbau der entwickelten Greiftechnik, sowie die dazugehörige Greifstrategie beschrieben. Die prototypisch realisierte Greiftechnik ermöglicht das flexible Spannen unterschiedlicher Profile für die spanende Bearbeitung. Anhand der Funktionsbeschreibung und der prototypischen Umsetzung wird aufgezeigt, wie eine produktflexible Anpassung der Greiftechnik an die Profilkontur realisiert wird und somit auf angepasste Vorrichtungen verzichtet werden kann. Außerdem werden die Untersuchungsergebnisse zu unterschiedlichen Messmethoden vorgestellt, die für eine vollständige Bestimmung der Profillage und -Orientierung für die entwickelte Greiftechnik und der dazugehörigen Greifstrategie notwendig sind. Aufbauend auf diesen Untersuchungen wird ein messtechnischer Ansatz vorgestellt, wie die räumliche Profilkontur in Kombination mit bauteileigenen Markierungen inline überwacht werden kann.


[ 2 ] Maropoulos, P. & Cunha, P. (2007), Digital Enterprise Technology Perspectives and Future Challenges, Springer, Düsseldorf. ISBN/ISSN: 978-0-387-49863-8
Abstract:
The ubiquitous globalization, which opens up new markets with their specific local conditions and labor costs, as well as the increasing pressure regarding time, costs and flexibility lead to the decentralization of the value added. The resulting global value added networks, consisting of company-owned and external sites as well as logistic partners, have to be configured, operated and optimized. An important criterion for these networks is their ability to a fast and efficient ramp-up. This article presents a concept to assess and select potential value added network’s nodes (sites or external partners) according to their ramp-up performance to achieve an optimal configuration of the network.


[ 3 ] Munzinger, C.; Lanza, G.; Ruch, D. & Elser, J. (2010), „Component-specific scale for inline quality assurance of spatially curved extrusion profiles“ in Production Engineering, Hrsg. WGP Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft für Produktionstechnik, Springer, Garching, S. 193-201.
Abstract:
Spatially curved Al-extrusion profiles are often used for lightweight frame structures in vehicle manufacturing. Within the Collaborative Research Centre SFB/Transregio 10, an automated productflexible process chain is established in order to produce and machine such profiles and to join them into frame structures. One of the biggest challenges of this process chain consists in handling, clamping and machining variably formed profiles with precision and without having to change the mechanical system. For this, both the contour of the profile and the position and orientation of the profile during the process have to be determined. In order to have this information provided from inside the process chain, a component-specific scale was developed and realised for the contour detection and precision positioning of multi-dimensionally curved extrusion profiles. The scale is applied onto the surface of the profile by a laser. To determine the contour, the scale is scanned using digital image processing and the profile is measured by a laser triangulation sensor. This establishes the relation between component scale and profile contour. If required, the position of the profile can be readjusted by scanning individual markings again during machining. It is not necessary to re-measure the entire profile contour. The process can be used for different profile contours and profile lengths without having to change the mechanical system. The first section of this article describes the approach for contour detection and precision positioning and its validation for straight profiles, 2D curved profiles and 3D curved profiles with a test rig.


[ 4 ] Lanza, G. & Viering, B. (2010), „Quality Assurance of Micro-gears via 3D Surface Characterization“ in Product Lifecycle Management: Geometric Variations , Hrsg. ISTE Ltd and John Wiley & Sons Inc, ISTE Ltd and John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York, S. 419-429.
Abstract:
A challenging task for a systematic quality assurance is the characterization of micro gears via metrology. Additional factors in micrometer dimensions such as significant shape deviations of the produced micro gears increase the complexity. This paper describes an approach for a three-dimensional surface characterization of the tooth flanks of micro gears. A three-dimensional point of view defines the functionally relevant tooth flanks as a surface in contrast to the common definition via two-dimensional characteristics. Additionally, this paper describes how these flank characterizations will then be used for matching micro gears afflicted with shape deviations for functioning gearings.


[ 5 ] Lanza, G. & Peters, J. (2010), „Impact of Workpiece Shape Deviations in Coordinate Metrology“ in Product Lifecycle Management - Geometric Variations, Hrsg. ISTE Ltd and John Wiley & Sons Inc, ISTE Ltd and John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York, S. 405-418.

[ 6 ] Albers, A.; Lanza, G.; Becke, C.; Viering, B. & Sadowski, E. (2011), „Integration von Funktionsprüfung und dimensioneller Messtechnik zu einer optimierten Qualitätssicherungsstrategie für Mikroverzahnungen“ in Neue Strategien der Mess- und Prüftechnik für die Produktion von Mikrosystemen und Nanostrukturen, Hrsg. VDI BERICHTE, Shaker Verlag, Aachen, S. 5-18. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-8440-0358-1
Abstract:
Sowohl in der Automobilindustrie, im Gesundheitswesen als auch im Bereich der Unterhaltungselektronik wird ein steigender Bedarf für Mikrozahnräder beobachtet [1, 2, 3]. Sie werden vorwiegend in Mikrogetrieben eingesetzt, um mechanische Leistung zu wandeln. Die Entwicklung und Produktion mikromechanischer Bauteile ist jedoch mit vielfältigen komplexen Anforderungen verknüpft. Die mit derzeitigen Mikro-Fertigungstechnologien erreichbaren Toleranzen setzen einer präzisen Funktionserfüllung beliebig gepaarter Mikrozahnräder klare Grenzen. Die tatsächlich gefertigten geometrischen Abmessungen mikromechanischer Bauteile liegen in derselben Größenordnung wie derzeit erreichbare Fertigungstoleranzen, sodass starke Schwankungen bezüglich der Abmessungen und entsprechende Gestaltabweichungen beobachtet werden [4]. Eine Funktionserfüllung in der vorgesehenen Qualität kann bei starken Formabweichungen nicht garantiert werden. Die primäre Herausforderung liegt vor allem darin, geeignete Zahnradpaarungen zu finden, die trotz der bauteilspezifischen Formabweichungen zur Erfüllung der vorgesehenen Funktion eingesetzt werden können. Da der Trend in Richtung kleinerer Bauteile bei gleichzeitig steigenden Qualitätsanforderungen geht [2], kommt der Qualitätsbeurteilung von Mikrozahnrädern eine immer größere Bedeutung zu. Diese Qualitätsbeurteilung kann einerseits aufgrund der geometrischen Beschaffenheit einzelner Systemkomponenten, andererseits aus dem funktionalen Verhalten des Gesamtsystems erfolgen. An den beiden Instituten IPEK - Institut für Produktentwicklung und wbk - Institut für Produktionstechnik am Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) wurde in Zusammenarbeit eine Qualitätssicherungsstrategie für Mikroverzahnungen entwickelt, die Aussagen über die Auswirkungen von Gestaltabweichungen auf den Funktionszusammenhang von Mikrozahnrädern ermöglicht. Gefördert wurden diese Arbeiten durch das Schwerpunktprogramm SPP1159 der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft. Als Ergebnis der im Folgenden vorgestellten Arbeiten können Formabweichungen an den Zahnflanken von Mikrozahnrädern derart bestimmt werden, dass eine Auswahl geeigneter Zahnradpaarungen zur Wahrung einer angestrebten Funktionserfüllung möglich ist. Problemstellungen und Lösungsansätze, die im Zusammenhang mit diesen Arbeiten entstanden sind, werden in diesem Artikel dargestellt.


Nichtreferierte Beiträge in Fachzeitschriften

[ 1 ] Spath, D.; Sternemann, K. & Lanza, G. (2001), „Unternehmensuebergreifende Simulation von Geschaeftsprozessen“, Industrie Management , S. 41-44.

[ 2 ] Spath, D.; Lanza, G.; Herm, M.; Verspohl, F. & Hofer, H. (2002), „Geschäftsprozesse mit generischen Petri-Netzen“, ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, S. 448-452.

[ 3 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G. & Ender, T. (2005), „Prozessinnovation durch prozessbasierte Qualitätsprognose im Produktionsanlauf“, ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Nr. 9, S. 510-516.
Abstract:
Kundenindividuellere Produkte, steigender Wettbewerbs- und Kostendruck in Verbindung mit sich stetig verkürzenden Produktlebenszyklen erhöhen die Bedeutung des Produktionsanlaufs innerhalb einer Organisation [1]. Die Fähigkeit, Produkte schneller als die Konkurrenz zu entwickeln, zu produzieren und am Markt zu positionieren, entscheidet zukünftig verstärkt über finanziellen Erfolg oder Misserfolg eines Unternehmens [2]. Hierbei gewinnt die Beherrschung der Produktionsanlaufprozesse an Bedeutung. Eine Verbesserung von am Produktionsanlauf beteiligten Prozessen bedeutet eine Qualitätssteigerung und damit zeitliche Verkürzung von Produktionsanläufen. Die am Institut für Produktionstechnik (wbk) der Universität Karlsruhe (TH) und im BMBF-geförderten Projekt ProactAS [3] entwickelte prozessbasierte Qualitätsprognose unterstützt den Anlaufmanager bei der Kontrolle und Prognose seiner Geschäftsprozesse im Produktionsanlauf. Die Qualitätsprognose bietet so eine Möglichkeit, prozessbasierte Störungen frühzeitig zu erkennen und effiziente Maßnahmen zur Störungsbeseitigung einleiten zu können.


[ 4 ] Nyhuis, P.; Heins, M.; Großhenning, P.; Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G. & Ender, T. (2005), „Simulationsunterstützte Wirkbeziehungsanalyse im Produktionsanlauf“, ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Nr. 12, S. 746-751.
Abstract:
Ein Produktionsanlauf ist gekennzeichnet durch das komplexe Zusammenwirken von Geschäftsprozessen, die die Ausbringung des Produktionssystems bestimmen. Im vom BMBF geförderten Projekt* "ProactAS - Proaktive Anlaufsteuerung entlang der Wertschöpfungskette" wird untersucht, inwieweit sich wesentliche Anlaufergebnisgrößen wie Produktionsmenge, -kapazität und -qualität im Verlauf eines Anlaufes verändern. Auf Grund der hohen Komplexität wird hierzu ein Prognosesystem bestehend aus einer Wirkbeziehungssystematik und einer Simulation entwickelt. Die Simulation setzt sich aus zwei Teilsystemen zusammen: einer Materialflusssimulation und einer Qualitätssimulation. Auf diese Weise kann eine ganzheitliche Anlaufsimulation erzeugt werden, indem qualitätsrelevante Aspekte wie die Fähigkeitsentwicklung von Geschäftsprozessen in die Materlaiflusssimulation integriert werden. Der Artikel stellt die Funktionsweise beider Simulationsinstrumente vor und beschreibt, wie eine Verknüpfung gelingt. Das Zusammenspiel wird anhand eines Simulationsszenarios gezeigt und mit einer prototypischen Implementierung getestet. Der Artikel endet mit einem Ausblick auf weitere Potenziale und Möglichkelten der beschriebenen Simulationstechniken.


[ 5 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Munzinger, C.; Schmidt-Ewig, J.; Ruch, D. & Schneider, M. (2006), „Maschinentechnik zur flexiblen Herstellung räumlich gekrümmter Strangpressprofile“, ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Nr. 7, S. 426-430.
Abstract:
Der stetig wachsende Bedarf an leichten Tragwerksstrukturen, wie sie häufig in der Verkehrstechnik zur Anwendung kommen, fordert neuartige Prozessketten zur kostengünstigen, automatisierten und produktflexiblen Kleinserienfertigung von Space-Frame-Rahmenstrukturen. Im Rahmen des Sonderforschungsbereichs Transregio 10 (SFB/TR 10) mit dem Titel „Integration von Umformen, Trennen und Fügen für die flexible Fertigung von leichten Tragwerkstrukturen“ entstand in der ersten Bewilligungsphase seit November 2002 eine Prozesskette mit neuartigen Maschinen- und Handhabungskonzepten zur Herstellung und Bearbeitung räumlich gekrümmter Strangpressprofile. Der folgende Artikel stellt die prototypisch realisierte Maschinentechnik vor und gibt einen Ausblick auf eine in die Prozesskette zu integrierende Qualitätssicherung.


[ 6 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Schmidt-Ewig, J. & Ruch, D. (2008), „Genauigkeitssteigerung bei der automatisierten Bearbeitung 3D-gerundeter Rohrprofile“, ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, S. 144-150.
Abstract:
In der Verkehrstechnik nimmt die Bedeutung leichter, selbst tragender Rahmenstrukturen, so genannter Space-Frame-Rahmen, kontinuierlich zu. Die Rahmenbauweise bietet ein hohes Leichtbaupotenzial, bringt jedoch auch hohe fertigungstechnische Herausforderungen mit sich. Ein im Sonderforschungsbereich* Transregio 10 erarbeiteter neuartiger Maschinenprototyp ermöglicht die produktflexible Bearbeitung dreidimensional gerundeter Rohrprofile mit geringem technischen Aufwand. Um eine gute Bearbeitungsqualität zu gewährleisten, ist die präzise Positionierung des Werkstücks erforderlich. In ersten Versuchen zur Positionierungsgenauigkeit konnte gezeigt werden, dass die absolute Genauigkeit jedoch noch nicht dem angestrebten Ziel entspricht. Aus diesem Grund wurde ein Ansatz zur Feinpositionierung erarbeitet, bei dem Sensorwerte an die Steuerung übergeben werden und anschließend die Ausgleichsbewegung berechnet und durchgeführt wird. Durch die Feinpositionierung kann die Genauigkeit deutlich erhöht werden.


[ 7 ] Lanza, G.; Peter, K. & Ude, J. (2008), „Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme: Wann, Warum, Wie?“, Industrie Management , S. 49-52.
Abstract:
Ausgehend von der Automobilindustrie führen zunehmend Unternehmen anderer Branchen ihr eigenes Ganzheitliches Produktionssystem (GPS) ein. Das Institut für Produktionstechnik (wbk) nahm diesen Trend zum Anlass, das Thema mit hochrangigen Führungskräften ausgewählter Industriepartner zu diskutieren. Der folgende Artikel gibt einen kurzen Einblick über die Erkenntnisse der Kurzstudie bezüglich der wesentlichen Merkmale Ganzheitlicher Produktionssysteme wie Motivation, Ausprägung, Einführungsstrategie, sowie Aufwand und Nutzen. Abschließend wird der Handlungsbedarf zur Weiterentwicklung von GPS erörtert.


[ 8 ] Lanza, G.; Tumis, S. & Weiler, S. (2009), „Verbesserte Arbeitsbedingungen und Umweltstandards in chinesischen Unternehmen durch Kooperationsprojekt“, Beschaffung aktuell, S. 46-47.

[ 9 ] Lanza, G.; Niggeschmidt, S. & Behmann, B. (2009), „Life-Cycle-Performance als Grundlage für technische Dienstleistungen“, Zeitschrift der IHK Nordschwarzwald- Informationen für die Wirtschaft, Band 1, S. 40-41.
Abstract:
Im Maschinen und Anlagenbau wird zunehmend nicht nur der Beschaffungspreis als entscheidendes Kaufargument, sondern auch die gesamten Kosten einer produktionstechnischen Maschine oder Anlage über ihren gesamten Lebenszyklus genannt. In diesem Rahmen sind technische Dienstleistungen in der Lage, die Lebenszykluskosten einer Maschine zu reduzieren. Eine Möglichkeit zur Prognose von Ausfallkosten und damit zur Quantifizierung des Nutzens technischer Dienstleistungen stellt der vom wbk entwickelte Servicekonfigurator dar. Hersteller und Betreiber von Anlagen und Maschinen erhalten mit dem Servicekonfigurator die Möglichkeit, die durch das Ausfallverhalten verursachten Kosten zu ermitteln und sie dem Nutzen aus einer Verfügbarkeitssteigerungen durch die Inanspruchnahme von technische Dienstleistungen gegenüberzustellen.


[ 10 ] Munzinger, C.; Lanza, G.; Elser, J.; Ruch, D.; Schneider, M. & Köhler, G. (2009), „Prozesskette zur flexiblen Herstellung leichter Tragwerkstrukturen“, ZWF - Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Band 6, S. 442-449.
Abstract:
Im Rahmen des Sonderforschungsbereich Transregio 10 (SFB/TR 10) “Integration von Umformen, Trennen und Fügen für die flexible Fertigung von leichten Tragwerkstrukturen” wird eine Prozesskette zur produktflexiblen Kleinserienfertigung von Space-Frame-Rahmenstrukturen aufgebaut. An diesem Forschungsprojekt sind Institute der Technischen Universität Dortmund, der Technischen Universität München und der Universität Karlsruhe (TH) beteiligt. Um bereits frühzeitig die Qualität und die Zuverlässigkeit der Prozesskette zu verbessern, wurde in einem standortübergreifenden Qualitätsarbeitskreis eine System-FMEA Prozess für die einzelnen Teilprozesse durchgeführt. Mit dieser konnten projektbegleitend potenzielle Fehlerschwerpunkte ermittelt und gezielt Gegenmaßnahmen eingeleitet werden. Im folgenden Artikel werden die eingeleiteten Fehlervermeidungsmaßnahmen für die am SFB/TR 10 beteiligten Prozesse und Verfahren beschrieben. Die Prozesse sind im Einzelnen: Das mehrachsige Runden beim Strangpressen sowie das darauf folgende fliegende Abtrennen zur Herstellung der Rahmenelemente, eine flexible und intelligente Greiftechnik in Kombination mit einer Handhabungs- und Bearbeitungskinematik zur spanenden Bearbeitung sowie als letzte Schritte die Verfahren Innenhochdruckfügen, Rührreibschweißen und Laserstrahlschweißen zum Fügen der Einzelteile zu einer Rahmenstruktur.


[ 11 ] Lanza, G.; Peter, K.; Jondral, A.; Spath, D.; Korge, A. & Krause, T. (2009), „Hybrides Planungswerkzeug zur adaptiven Planung Innovative Konzepte für das Zusammenwirken von Mensch und Computer im Planungsprozess“, ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Band 7, S. 582-587.
Abstract:
Aufgabenstellung des Forschungsprojekts HyPlan ist die Konzeption eines softwaregestützten Planungswerkzeugs, mit dem Fertigungsplaner in kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen bei Neu- oder Umplanungen von Produktionssystemen sowie deren Anpassung an sich ändernde Rahmenbedingungen unterstützt werden. Im Projekt werden zwei Fragestellungen vertieft. Zunächst, wie kann das Zusammenwirken von Mensch und Computer im Planungsprozess optimal gestaltet werden (hybride Planung)? Des Weiteren, wie kann das Produktionssystem über seine gesamte Lebensdauer hinweg systematisch an Veränderungen der betrieblichen Rahmenbedingungen angepasst werden (Adaption)? Dieser Artikel fokussiert auf das Zusammenwirken von Mensch und Computer im Planungsprozess. Dazu vertieft er die grundlegenden Konzepte des hybriden Planungswerkzeugs.


[ 12 ] Lanza, G.; Ude, J. & Deuringer, A. (2009), „Gestaltung verteilter Entwicklungsnetzwerke“, ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Band 7, S. 560-565.
Abstract:
Durch immer kürzer werdende Produktlebenszyklen gewinnt das Thema der Innovationsgeschwindigkeit zunehmend an Bedeutung. Verluste durch einen verspäteten Markteintritt können im Produktlebenszyklus nicht mehr kompensiert werden. Speziell bei Produkten, die nicht von einem Hersteller alleine, sondern auf grund Grund ihrer Komplexität oder ihrer technischen Besonderheiten im Verbund mit anderen Unternehmen entwickelt und hergestellt werden, gestaltet sich der Innovationsprozess zunehmend langwierig und zeitaufwändig. Im vorliegenden Artikel wird eine im Forschungsprojekt „Innovationen in verteilten Engineering-Netzwerken (Engineering.net)“* entwickelte Konfigurationsmethodik für verteilte Entwicklungsnetzwerke vorgestellt, die den Anwender unterstützt, geeignete Partner für das Entwicklungsvorhaben zu identifizieren und das Entwicklungsnetzwerk bereits im Vorfeld zu bewerten. Integriert wird diese Vorgehensweise in ein Konstrukt aus mehreren Methoden, deren Kombination ein umfassendes Vorgehensmodell zur Gestaltung von Prozessabläufen in verteilten Entwicklungsnetzwerken ergibt.


[ 13 ] Lanza, G.; Werner, P.; Behmann, B. & Rühl, J. (2009), „Instandhaltungsoptimierung für Windkraftanlagen“, IHK- MagazInformationen für die Wirtschaft, S. 10-11.
Abstract:
Um einerseits die durch technologischen Fortschritt wachsende Energienachfrage zu decken und andererseits die CO2- Emissionen zu reduzieren, die durch die Verbrennung von fossilen Brennstoffen entstehen, werden in den letzten Jahren diverse Energiequellen erschlossen. Anforderungen dabei sind, dass die Energiequelle für menschliche Maßstäbe kontinuierlich zur Verfügung steht, durch die Energiewandlung im besten Fall kein CO2 entsteht und keinerlei Risiken für den Menschen ausgehen. Alle drei Kriterien werden durch die Wandlung von kinetischer Windenergie in elektrische Energie durch Windkraftanlagen (WKA) erfüllt. Die Herausforderung innerhalb der Windkrafttechnologie ist, die Herstellungskosten pro Kilowattstunde zu senken, um mit klassichen Technologie der Energieerzeugung wettbewerbsfähig zu sein. Zielsetzung des vom wbk entwickelten Ansatzes ist die Senkung der Kosten pro Kilowattstunde Windkraft durch die Minimierung der Instandhaltungskosten mit Hilfe eines lastabhängigen Zuverlässigkeitsmodells und der statistischen Optimierung der Instandhaltungskapazitäten.


[ 14 ] Lanza, G.; Rühl, J. & Peters, S. (2009), „Bewertung von Stückzahl- und Variantenflexibilität in der Produktion“, ZWF - Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Band 11, S. 1039-1044.
Abstract:
Die zunehmende Erhöhung der Variantenvielfalt von Produkten stellt eine Herausforderung an alle Bereiche der Unternehmung dar. Im Kontext der Produktion heißt dies vor allem eine optimale Flexibilität der eingesetzten Produktionssysteme zu finden. Zu dem Zeitpunkt strategischer Marktentscheidungen liegen meistens noch sehr wenige Daten über Stückzahlverläufe und Variantenoptionen eines Produktes vor, sodass eine Analyse der Herstellkosten und damit eine optimale Auswahl und Gestaltung des Produktionssystems schwierig ist. Im Rahmen des Verbundforschungsprojekts VireS (Virtuelle Synchronisation von Produktentwicklung und Produktionssystementwicklung) wurde am Institut für Produktionstechnik (wbk) der Universität Karlsruhe ein Simulationsalgorithmus entwickelt und implementiert, der ausgehend von den in frühen Planungsphasen verfügbaren Daten den Kostenverlauf eines Produktionssystems in Abhängigkeit von Varianten- und Stückzahlbereichen über dessen Lebenszyklus abbildet. Dabei spielen stochastische Umwelteinflüsse eine zentrale Rolle.


[ 15 ] Lanza, G.; Peters, S.; Rühl, J. & Günther, T. (2010), „Dynamische Bewertung von Produktionsszenarien“, VDI-Z Integrierte Produktion, Band 1, S. 67-69.
Abstract:
Durch dir Erhöhung der Variantenvielfalt verstärken sich die Herausforderungen in allen Bereichen eines Unternehmens. Kern ist die Fragestellung nach der optimalen Flexibilität der eingesetzten Produktionssystem. Vor allem in der Angebotsphase eines neuen Produkts liegen meistens noch sehr wenig Daten über zukünftige Stückzahlverläufe und Variantenoptionen vor. Dies erschwert eine genaue Analyse des Kostenverhaltens bei der Herstellung und damit eine optimale Auswahl und Gestaltung des Produktionssystems.


[ 16 ] Lanza, G.; Behmann, B. & Peters, S. (2010), „Verfügbarkeitswirksame technische Dienstleistungen - Potenzialanalyse bei KMU im Maschinen- und Anlagenbau“, ZWF - Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Band 5, S. 421-425.
Abstract:
Gerade in konjunkturschwachen Zeiten versuchen Unternehmen aller Größenordnungen durch innovative Dienstleistungen die Bindung ihrer Kunden zu erhöhen, um rückläufige Umsätze mit Neumaschinen aufzufangen. Allerdings stoßen nicht alle von den Anbietern als innovativ formulierten Dienstleistungen auf die Akzeptanz der Kunden. Im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts „Wissenstransfer und Grundlagenbereitung für technische Dienstleistungen im Maschinenund Anlagenbau (WiTal)“ wurde eine umfassende Potenzialanalyse in Form einer Unternehmensbefragung durchgeführt, um zu untersuchen, welche Dienstleistungen für Kunden und Anbieter zukünftig von besonderer wirtschaftlicher Relevanz sind. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf so genannten verfügbarkeitswirksamen technischen Dienstleistungen, die zum einen das Ausfallverhalten von Produktionssystemen berücksichtigen und zum anderen die Verfügbarkeit des Produktionssystems direkt verbessern. Im Folgenden werden die Herangehensweise bei der Potenzialanalyse sowie die detaillierten Ergebnisse der Analyse vorgestellt.


[ 17 ] Lanza, G.; Peter, K. & Peters, S. (2010), „Ganzheitliche Modellierung von Produktionssystemen - Ein stochastisches, ganzheitliches Modell zur Lebenszyklusberechnung“, Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Nr. 5, S. 478-482.
Abstract:
Die Umwelt der Produktion, insbesondere die Beschaffungs- und Absatzmärkte, gestalten sich zunehmend dynamisch, Produktlebenszyklen werden kürzer und Kunden sind bezüglich der Individualisierung der Produkte anspruchsvoller geworden. Die Komplexität der Produktionssysteme selbst wird durch eine zunehmende räumliche Verteilung einzelner Prozesse auf mehrere Standorte sowie durch den globalen Kostendruck erhöht. Die frühzeitige Berücksichtigung von Lebenszykluskosten in der Planung zukünftiger Produktionssysteme erfordert folglich den adäquaten Umgang mit Unsicherheiten. Am Institut für Produktionstechnik (wbk) des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie (KIT) wird derzeit eine Methodik zur Bewertung und Optimierung von Produktionssystemen entwickelt, die ein Produktionssystem beginnend in frühen Planungsphasen bis zum Ende des Lebenszyklus begleitet. Im Folgenden wird das Grundmodell zur Bewertung unter Berücksichtigung relevanter Unsicherheiten vorgestellt, das Grundlage für eine spätere, angestrebte dynamische Optimierung ist.


[ 18 ] Schlipf, M.; Lanza, G.; Dietrich, E. & Schulze, A. (2010), „Heilsame Trennung“, QZ Qualität und Zuverlässigkeit, Nr. 10, S. 68-71.
Abstract:
Bei Strukturen mit Toleranzen im Submikrometerbereich erlauben es selbst modernste Messsysteme nicht, Fertigungs- und Messprozess zu separieren. Überwachung und Regelung der Fertigungsstreuung basieren auf überlagerten Daten und bleiben daher meist erfolglos. Am Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) gelang mit einem neuartigen Qualitätsregelkarten-Design die Trennung von Fertigungs- und Messstreuung.


[ 19 ] Schlichtenmayer, K.; Maier, H.; Lanza, G.; Peters, S. & Krämer, L. (2010), „Heuristische Geschäftsprozessoptimierung in der Fahrzeugentwicklung“, Konstruktion, Band 11, S. 67-68.
Abstract:
Zunehmender weltweiter Wettbewerb, volatile Nachfrage bei gestiegenen Kundenansprüchen, zunehmende Prognoseunsicherheiten, Verschiebungen im Produkt- und Variantenportfolio während des Lebenszyklus bei gleichzeitig abnehmender Dauer der Lebenszyklen sowie steigendem Kostendruck stellen die Automobilindustrie heute vor herausfordernde Aufgaben. Die Optimierung von Entwicklungsprozessen, welche die Basis für den späteren Erfolg eines Produktes am Markt festlegen, ist Teil des Geschäftsprozessmanagements, um schlussendlich die zukünftige Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Unternehmens zu sichern.


[ 20 ] Heinen, T.; Peter, K.; Erlach, K.; Nyhuis, P.; Lanza, G. & Westkämper, E. (2011), „Zukunftsthemen der Fabrik - Wohin geht der Trend? Ergebnisse einer umfangreichen Online-Umfrage des VDI-Fachausschusses "Fabrikplanung"“, ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Band 5, S. 405-409.
Abstract:
Der VDI-Fachausschuss „Fabrikplanung“ befasst sich als Gremium der VDI-Gesellschaft „Produktion und Logistik“ mit der Erarbeitung fabrikplanerischer Themen, die im Hinblick auf den Wissenstransfer in die verarbeitende Industrie anwendungsorientiert aufbereitet werden. Als ein wesentliches Ergebnis der Fachausschussaktivitäten der vergangenen Jahre ist 2009 die VDI-Richtlinie „Fabrikplanung“ (5200) entstanden. Um in dem zunehmend turbulenten und globalen Umfeld Zukunftsthemen der Fabrikplanung zu identifizieren, wurde eine Umfrage unter VDI-Mitgliedern durchgeführt. Die vorliegende Veröffentlichung gibt die zentralen Ergebnisse der Umfrage wieder.


[ 21 ] Engbert, T.; Biermann, D.; Zabel, A.; Otter, M.; Munzinger, C. & Lanza, G. (2010), „Dünnwandige Leichtmetallteile präzise bearbeiten - Vergleich zweier Maschinenkonzepte für die Bearbeitung von Leichtmetallstrangpressprofilen“, technica, Band 9, S. 22-24.
Abstract:
Am wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik wurde eine Handhabungs- und Bearbeitungskinematik entwickelt, die sich aus einer seriellen Kinematik und einer Parallelkinematik zusammensetzt. Das Institut für spanende Fertigung ISF in Dortmund befasst sich u.a. mit der mechanischen Bearbeitung von dünnwandigen Leichtbaustrukturen. Gemeinsame Untersuchungen zum Fräsen von Aluminiumstrangpressprofilen am neuen Maschinenkonzept und an einem konventionellen dreiachsigen Bearbeitungszentrum zeigen die aktuellen und künftig erreichbaren Möglichkeiten und Präzisionsgrenzen der Kinematik auf.


[ 22 ] Lanza, G.; Jondral, A.; Moser, R. & Kübler, L. (2011), „Erfolgsfaktoren beim Einsatz von Lean-Methoden“, Productivity Management, Band 3, S. 36-39.
Abstract:
Die vorgestellte Unternehmenskurzstudie zeigt, in welcher Implementierungsstufe sich Unternehmen bei der Einführung von Lean-Methoden derzeit befinden, welche Methoden sie vorzugsweise einsetzen und welchen Anteil diese zur Erreichung angestrebter Ziele beitragen. Zusätzlich werden vermisste Hilfestellungen während der Einführung und mögliche Ausprägungsstufen der verbreiteten Methoden vorgestellt.


[ 23 ] Lanza, G.; Peters, S. & Stockey, S. (2011), „Auswirkungen neuer Mobilitätsformen auf die Produktion“, ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Band 5, S. 357-360.
Abstract:
Unsere Mobilität ist in hohem Maße von fossilen Brennstoffen abhängig. Die Beschränktheit dieser Ressourcen, die negativen Auswirkungen auf den Menschen und seine Umwelt durch deren Verbrennung sowie verschärfte gesetzliche Regulierungen führen seit Jahren zu massiven Anstrengungen in Wissenschaft und Wirtschaft alternative Mobilitätskonzepte insbesondere für den automobilen Individualverkehr zu entwickeln. Der damit verbundene Strukturwandel innerhalb und außerhalb der Produktionswerke der Automobilhersteller wird zukünftig stärker in den Fokus rücken. Im Folgenden wird ein Überblick über produk-tionstechnische Herausforderungen gegeben sowie mögliche Lösungsideen und Thesen diskutiert.


[ 24 ] Lanza, G.; Ruhrmann, S.; Jondral, A. & Bensing, J. (2011), „Global Procurement Guide - Ein Leitfaden für globale Beschaffungsaktivitäten in kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen“, ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Band 5, S. 291-294.
Abstract:
Die zunehmende Vernetzung der Wirtschaftsräume im Zuge der fortschreitenden Globalisierung ermöglicht heute weltweite Beschaffungs-, Fertigungs- und Absatzaktivitäten. Der Wettbewerb steigt und so wird es auch für immer mehr kleine und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) zur Notwendigkeit, die Möglichkeiten einer globalen Beschaffung auszuschöpfen, um marktgerechte Produktpreise zu erzielen sowie Marktanteile im In- und Ausland zu sichern. Im Folgenden wird eine Methode vorgestellt, welche den strategischen Einkäufern von KMU als Leitfaden in einem fachbereichsübergreifenden Strategieentwicklungsprozess dient. Dabei sind insbesondere die Wirkzusammenhänge zwischen Bauteil, Beschaffungsmarkt und der eigenen Unternehmensorganisation zu analysieren.


[ 25 ] Spath, D.; Korge, A.; Krause, T.; Lanza, G.; Jondral, A. & Moser, R. (2011), „Hybrides Planungswerkzeug zur adaptiven Auslegung von Lean-Methoden“, ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Band 6, S. 413-417.
Abstract:
Kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) beschäftigen üblicherweise keine Stabsstellen oder Planungsexperten zur Auslegung von Lean-Systemen. Außerdem verfügen die Mitarbeiter in KMU im Allgemeinen nicht über notwendige Erfahrung, um eine Lean-Planung ohne unterstützende Hilfsmittel schnell und zielgerichtet durchzuführen. Aus diesem Grund wurde im Projekt HyPlan ein hybrides Planungswerkzeug zur adaptiven Auslegung von Lean-Methoden in der variantenreichen Kleinserienproduktion entwickelt und prototypisch realisiert. Dieses Planungswerkzeug leitet den Planer schrittweise und systematisch durch den Planungsprozess und unterstützt ihn bei der Auswahl und Auslegung der Methoden des Lean-Systems.


[ 26 ] Lanza, G. & Peters, S. (2011), „Effizienzsteigerung von Produktionssystemen“, ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Band 6, S. 418-422.
Abstract:
Die globale Verflechtung der Produktion führt zu einer hohen Dynamik des wirtschaftlichen Handelns. Mehr noch als bisher müssen Produktionsplaner Unsicherheiten und plötzlich auftretende Schwankungen bei langfristigen Planungen berücksichtigen. Dabei muss der Betrachtungsfokus so gefasst werden, dass die Möglichkeiten und Anforderungen einzelner Werke als Teil eines Verbundes im Netzwerk erfasst und berücksichtigt werden.


[ 27 ] Lanza, G.; Moser, R.; Scholz-Reiter, B.; Özsahin, M.; Schuhkraft, S. & Meil, P. (2011), „Planung und Optimierung wandlungsfähiger globaler Wertschöpfungsnetzwerke“, Industrie Management, Band 3, S. 57-60.
Abstract:
Erfolgreiche deutsche Produktionsunternehmen haben sich in Zusammenhang mit der Konzentration auf ihre Kernkompetenzen und der Nutzung internationaler Standortvorteile in Form globaler Wertschöpfungsnetzwerke aufgestellt. Die fortschreitende globale Einbindung von unternehmensinternen Werken sowie externen Partnern und Zulieferern begünstigt jedoch komplexe Wirkungsmechanismen innerhalb der Netzwerke, die teilweise oder vollständig unbekannt und schwer prognostizierbar sind. Möchten deutsche Produktionsunternehmen auch zukünftig die positiven Effekte der Globalisierung nutzen, müssen sie in der Lage sein, die sich dramatisch ändernden Einflussfaktoren globaler Wertschöpfungsnetzwerke zu beherrschen. Diesbezüglich gewinnen wandlungsfähige Wertschöpfungsketten, die sich flexibel und reaktionsschnell an die dynamischen Herausforderungen anpassen, an Bedeutung. Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt einen Ansatz zur Planung und Optimierung wandlungsfähiger globaler Wertschöpfungsnetzwerke. Grundlage ist das Vorgehen des im September 2010 gestarteten Verbundforschungsprojektes „Planung und Optimierung von wandlungsfähigen globalen Wertschöpfungsnetzwerken“ (POWer.net)


[ 28 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Elser, J. & Otter, M. (2011), „Automatisierte Kleinserienmontage von Rahmenstrukturen“, VDI-Z Integrierte Produktion, S. 99-101.
Abstract:
Die Montage von leichten Rahmenstrukturen erfolgt bei kleinen Stückzahlen in der Regel manuell. Die Möglichkeit zur Verbesserung der Wirtschaftlichkeit sowie zur Steigerung der Reproduzierbarkeit der Qualität sprechen jedoch für eine automatisierte Montage in der Kleinserie. Da bei kleinen Stückzahlen Prozesse meist nicht eingefahren werden können, entstehen Abweichungen an den einzelnen Bauteilen. Der Umgang mit Abweichungen und eine exakte, vorrichtungsfreie und damit flexible Positionierung der Bauteile bei der Montage stellt daher eine große Herausforderung dar. Am wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik wird ein Ansatz zur vorrichtungsfreien und flexiblen Montage von Rahmenstrukturen mit Industrierobotern verfolgt. Dazu wird eine Methodik entwickelt, mit welcher fertigungsbedingte Abweichungen ausgeglichen werden, und die Bauteile vorrichtungsfrei präzise zueinander positioniert werden können.


[ 29 ] Lanza, G. & Ruhrmann, S. (2011), „Research into production technology“, PS Public Service Review European Science and Technology , S. 92-93.
Abstract:
Economic globalization leads to ever-growing pressure on the competitive strength of companies at the global level. Consequently, the ability to transfer innovative technologies to production companies is crucial. The wbk Institute of Production Science at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT is concentrating on research and the translation of the findings into innovative solutions for production companies. Our main activities are focused on education and application oriented research within the three departments Manufacturing and Materials Technology, Machine Tools and Handling Technology and Production Systems, (presided by Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Volker Schulze, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Fleischer and Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gisela Lanza, who represent the board of management). The Manufacturing and Materials Technology department is dedicated to the investigation of interdependencies within the machining processes of industrial materials. The goal of the Machine Tools and Handling Technology department is to develop innovative, integrated solutions for machine tools, as well as the process near, process distant and process-overlapping handling technology. One example is the collaborative research centre SFB/TR10, which looks into developing and transforming a process chain for the flexible production and machining of spatially curved extrusion profiles (see Figure 1). Furthermore, the Production Systems department is not limited to improving the performance of individual production processes, but also includes the monitoring and optimisation of complete production networks. Beyond the technology region of Karlsruhe, we also cooperate with industrial partners aiming to find solutions to diverse problems within the field of production technology and to develop new methods and processes for tomorrow´s production environment.


[ 30 ] Lanza, G.; Ender, T.; Book, J. & Jondral, A. (2011), „Qualitätsprobleme im Ursprung beheben“, Beschaffung aktuell, S. 20-22.
Abstract:
Chinesische Lieferanten erfüllen nicht immer auf Anhieb die Erwartungen des Einkaufs hierzulande. Das gilt insbesondere für Qualität, Umweltschutz und Arbeitssicherheit. Unsere Autoren berichten hier von einem Projekt, welches die Produktionsbedingungen und das Produktionsumfeld im Ursprung, nämlich beim Lieferanten, nachhaltig verbessern soll.


[ 31 ] Lanza, G.; Stengele, G.; Appel, D. & Behmann, B. (2011), „Erfolgsfaktor Servicedaten“, VDMA Nachrichten, S. 18-19.

[ 32 ] Lanza, G.; Behmann, B. & Appel, D. (2011), „Mit Methode investiert - Life Cycle Performance“, VDMA Nachrichten, S. 16-17.

[ 33 ] Ender, M.; Lanza, G. & Nissen, J. (2011), „Supply Chain Risk Management“, RC&A Risk, S. 28-31.

[ 34 ] Lanza, G.; Ender, T.; Book, J. & Jondral, A. (2011), „Nachhaltige und umfassende Lieferantenentwicklung in China - Teil 2 - Schluss mit hohen Beständen“, Beschaffung aktuell, S. 22-23.

[ 35 ] Lanza, G.; Book, J. & Enz, T. (2011), „Beherrschung der Qualitätssicherung im Wertschöpfungsnetzwerk“, ZWF - Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Band 12, S. 928-933.
Abstract:
Zur Simulation des Qualitätssicherungsverhaltens von Unternehmen in Wertschöpfungsnetzwerken wurde am wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik ein agentenbasiertes Entscheidungsunterstützungssystem entwickelt. Das System basiert auf qualitätssicherungsspezifischen Teilmodellen für Produkte, Unternehmen, die Kunden-Lieferanten-Beziehung sowie Wertschöpfungsnetzwerke. Die Implementierung erfolgte auf Basis der Simulationsplattform SeSAm. Erste Versuche bestätigen die erfolgreiche Abbildung des dezentralen Entscheidungsverhaltens, das als entscheidende Eigenschaft zur Beschreibung des Verhaltens realer Netzwerke betrachtet wird.


[ 36 ] Lanza, G.; Peters, S.; Schmollinger, S. & Günther, T. (2012), „Investitions- und Kapazitätsplanung in der mittelständischen Automobilindustrie“, VDI Z-Integrierte Produktion, S. 59-62.
Abstract:
Der wirtschaftliche Umgang mit der Volatilität der Absatzmärkte ist heute eine der zentralen Herausforderungen der Investitions- und Kapazitätsplanung in der Produktion. Die Krise der vergangenen Jahre ist dafür ein besonders extremes Beispiel. Mit Hilfe eines in einem Softwaredemonstrator umgesetzten Optimierungsverfahrens konnten bei einem mittelständischen Automobilzulieferer optimale Strategien als Entscheidungsunterstützung für volatile Märkte abgeleitet werden.


[ 37 ] Lanza, G.; Appel, D. & Behmann, B. (2012), „Wissenstransfer technischer Dienstleistungen im Maschinenbau - Projekt WiTal“, IHK Magazin Nordschwarzwald, Band 2, S. 54-55.
Abstract:
Das Angebot technischer Services im Bereich der Wartung und Instandhaltung von Maschinen und Anlagen wird durch die stetige Ausweitung von Produktions- und Verkaufsnetzwerken immer komplexer. Gerade Dienstleistungen, wie die Ersatzteilbereitstellung und die Übernahme von konkreten Instandhaltungsinhalten, stellen vor Allem für klein- und mittelständische Unternehmen des Maschinen- und Anlagenbaus in Deutschland ein großes wirtschaftliches Potential dar. Eine Steigerung des Nutzens und damit auch eine Steigerung der Gewinne für die Anbieter sind jedoch nur erzielbar, falls der Kostenaufwand über die gesamte Laufzeit vor der Angebotsabgabe kalkuliert werden kann. Vor diesem Hintergrund war das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens WiTal (Wissenstransfer und Grundlagenbereitung technischer Dienstleistungen im Maschinen- und Anlagenbau), welches durch die Stiftung Baden-Württemberg finanziert und durch den Projektträger im Deutschen Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt betreut wurde, insbesondere klein- und mittelständische Unternehmen zu befähigen, technische Dienstleistungen systematisch zu entwickeln und wirtschaftlich umzusetzen.


[ 38 ] Lanza, G.; Ruhrmann, S. & Jondral, A. (2012), „Methodik für qualitätsoptimale globale Beschaffung“, QZ - Qualität und Zuverlässigkeit, Band 6, S. 58-59.
Abstract:
Die Qualität der eigenen Produkte steht und fällt mit der Qualität der Zulieferkomponenten. Beschafft wird heute weltweit und insbesondere in Niedriglohnländern. Eine ganzheitliche Methodik, die softwaregestützt hilft, strategische Entscheidungen beim Global Sourcing zu treffen, wurde jetzt gemeinsam mit vier Praxispartnern am Karlsruher Institut für Technologie entwickelt.


[ 39 ] Wagner, H.; Brabandt, D.; Lanza, G. & Fleischer, J. (2013), „Preforming von CFK-Halbzeugen im Spannungsfeld der Stückzahl - Effiziente Herstellung von Preforms mit endkonturnaher Geometrie“, VDI-Z Integrierte Produktion, Band 6, S. 64-66.
Abstract:
Bei der Herstellung von hochbelastbaren CFK-Bauteilen werden die Teilprozesse im RTM-Verfahren durch die Stückzahl und das Zielsegment bestimmt. Davon wird maßgeblich die Vorgehensweise für das Preforming beeinflusst. Der hier durchzuführende Formgebungsprozess stellt mit der Qualitätssicherung die größte Herausforderung dar. Um eine wirtschaftliche Fertigung zu realisieren muss eine geeignete Vorgehensweise ausgewählt werden.


[ 40 ] Fleischer, J.; Lanza, G.; Otter, M. & Elser, J. (2013), „Flexible Montage leichter Rahmenstrukturen“, VDI-Z Integrierte Produktion, S. 28.
Abstract:
Leichte Tragwerkstrukturen auf Basis von Aluminiumstrangpressprofilen zeichnen sich durch ihr geringes Gewicht und ihren modularen Aufbau aus. Aus diesem Grund werden sie häufig bei Fahrzeugen in Kleinserien eingesetzt. Zur automatisierten und wirtschaftlichen Montage solcher Strukturen wurden am wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik zwei neue Ansätze entwickelt und im Einzelnen erprobt, wobei die Reduktion von Ausschuss und der weitest gehende Verzicht von kostenintensiven Vorrichtungen während der Montage im Vordergrund stehen. Mit den Ansätzen ist es einerseits möglich vor dem Beginn der Montage Abweichungen zu erkennen, und durch entsprechende Maßnahmen zu kompensieren. Anderseits wurde ein Verfahren entwickelt, das es ermöglicht, die Fügepartner weitgehend vorrichtungsfrei in ihrer Soll-Lage und Orientierung anzuordnen. Aktuelle Arbeiten beschäftigen sich mit der Integration dieser beiden Verfahren in eine prototypische Prozesskette. Zu diesem Zweck wird ein flexibler Montagegreifer für gerundete Strangpressprofile entwickelt und prototypisch realisiert.


[ 41 ] Lanza, G.; Brabandt, D.; Kölmel, A. & Häfner, B. (2013), „Trends in der Fertigungsmesstechnik - Im Wechselspiel mit den Anforderungen“, QZ Qualität und Zuverlässigkeit, S. 44-47.
Abstract:
Batterien, Leichtbauteile und Mikrostrukturen werden nach neuen Produktionstechnologien gefertigt. Dies erfordert auch eine auf den Prozess abgestimmte Fertigungsmesstechnik. Dabei zeichnen sich drei Trends ab.


[ 42 ] Lanza, G.; Arndt, T. & Häfner, B. (2013), „Über alle Grenzen hinweg - Qualitätssicherung in globalen Wertschöpfungsnetzwerken“, QZ Qualität und Zuverlässigkeit, Nr. 12, S. 26-29.
Abstract:
Globale Wertschöpfungsnetzwerke gewinnen für die Produktion zunehmend an Bedeutung. Um unter Bedingungen großer Sprach-, System- und Kulturvielfalt eine hohe Produktqualität zu gewährleisten, muss die Qualitätssicherung standort- und unternehmensübergreifend gestaltet werden. Ein Forschungsprojekt entwickelte Methoden, mit denen Unternehmen für ihr spezifisches Wertschöpfungsnetzwerk die optimale Qualitätssicherungsstrategie finden.


[ 43 ] Ruhrmann, S.; Hochdörffer, J. & Lanza, G. (2014), „A methodological approach to evaluate supplier development based on real options“, Production Engineering - Research and Development, Band 3, S. 373-382.
Abstract:
In the last three decades, companies have intensified their global business activities with suppliers and thereby were able to focus on their core competencies. Today, supplier development in low cost countries is of increasing strategic importance due to its high cost-cutting potential; however, especially low cost country sourcing features high decision complexity and challenges due to changing corporate environment. This paper presents a three step approach to include uncertainty and flexibility into the decision making process on supplier development, using real options valuation. First, the procurement object is analysed followed by an analysis of the corporate environment in which dynamic environmental factors and risks are evaluated. In the final step, the real options value of the supplier development project is determined, including market risks and flexibility of action. The methodology of real options valuation is a useful tool for supplier evaluation in a low cost country environment since it provides a gradual increase in prediction quality through a project accompanying evaluation and therefore allows for more reliable planning.


[ 44 ] Colledani, M.; Tollio, T.; Fischer, A.; Iung, B.; Lanza, G. & Schmitt, R. (2014), „Design and management of manufacturing systems for production quality“, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, S. 773-796.
Abstract:
Manufacturing companies are continuously facing the challenge of operating their manufacturing processes and systems in order to deliver the required production rates of high quality products, while minimizing the use of resources. Production quality is proposed in this paper as a new paradigm aiming at going beyond traditional six-sigma approaches. This new paradigm is extremely relevant in Technology intensive and emerging strategic manufacturing sectors, such as aeronautics, automotive, energy, medical technology, micro-manufacturing, electronics and mechatronics. Traditional six-sigma techniques show strong limitations in highly changeable production contexts, characterized by small batch productions, customized, or even one-of-a-kind products, and in-line product inspections. Innovative and integrated quality, production logistics and maintenance design, management and control methods as well as advanced technological enablers have a key role to achieve the Overall production quality goal. This paper revises problems, methods and tools to support this paradigm and highlights the main challenges and opportunities for manufacturing industries in this context.


[ 45 ] Lanza, G.; Peters, S.; Arndt, T.; Häfner, B. & Stricker, N. (2014), „Die Produktion im Jahr 2025 - ein Zukunftsbild“, Industrie Management, Nr. 6, S. 64-66.
Abstract:
Deutschland ist das am stärksten industrialisierte Land der EU. Die enge Zusammenarbeit zwischen Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft sichert einen schnellen Markteintritt neuer Technologien. Die Produktion hat dabei stets einen integrativen Charakter als "Enabler" von Disziplinen bei der Umsetzung einer Idee in ein Produkt. Um den wachsenden Herausforderungen am Hochlohnstandort gerecht zu werden, müssen immer wieder sämtliche Potenziale neuer Technologien gehoben werden. Aktuell ist die Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie ein besonders prominenter "Enabler" des "Enablers".


[ 46 ] Kopf, R.; Appel, D.; Lehmann, S. & Lanza, G. (2014), „Gestaltung des Servicegeschäfts von Maschinen- und Anlagenbauern“, ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Nr. 12, S. 927-930.
Abstract:
Bestehende Servicenetzwerke lassen sich hinsichtlich des Bedarfs monetärer, menschlicher und materieller Ressourcen optimieren. Bei einer Neugestaltung des Servicenetzwerkes sind sowohl die Anordnung des Netzwerkes selbst bestehend aus Standorten und Kunden als auch die Auswahl der Servicestrategiekombinationen, d. h. der Beschaffungs-, Lagerhaltungs- und Instandhaltungsstrategien, ein wesentlicher Effizienzfaktor. Im Rahmen eines DFG Forschungsvorhabens*) wurden für die Auswahl der Strategiekombinationen ganzheitliche Entscheidungsmatrizen entwickelt.


[ 47 ] Hochdörffer, J.; Henkes, P.; Peters, S. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Modelle zur Vorhersage von Produktionskosten - Stochastische Kostenprognose im Rahmen der Elektromobilität“, wt Werkstattstechnik online, Band 4, S. 238-243.
Abstract:
In frühen Phasen der Produktentstehung sind Informationen häufig mit Unsicherheiten behaftet, dies gilt auch für unreife Technologien im Bereich der Elektromobilität. Der Fachbeitrag stellt ein stochastisches Modell zur Prognose von Produktionskosten vor, das sowohl unsichere Informationen einbezieht als auch Korrelationen zwischen verschiedenen Kostenarten berücksichtigt. Das Modell basiert auf den Grundsätzen der Monte-Carlo-Simulation und passt sich flexibel der gegebenen Datengrundlage an.


[ 48 ] Hochdörffer, J.; Maul, J. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Herstellkosten im Rahmen der Elektromobilität - Konzeptionierung und Anwendung eines stochastischen Prognosemodells“, ZWF - Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Band 3, S. 122-125.
Abstract:
Das Marktumfeld der Elektromobilität ist durch Marktunsicherheit und -dynamik geprägt. Vor allem in den frühen Phasen der Produktentstehung sind Herstellkostenprognosen mit einem hohen Grad an Unsicherheit verbunden. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden deshalb die Konzeptionierung und die Anwendung eines stochastischen Prognosemodells vorgestellt, um bereits zu einem sehr frühen Zeitpunkt eine Kostenabschätzung für die Produktherstellung durchführen zu können.


[ 49 ] Brabandt, D.; Baumann, F.; Berger, D.; Lanza, G.; Summa, J.; Schwarz, M.; Herrmann, H.; Pohl, M. & Stommel, M. (2015), „Großserientaugliche Verbindungselementefür den hybriden Leichtbau“, lightweight design, Nr. 2, S. 48-53.
Abstract:
Da Verbindungszonen in Hybridverbunden unter einer erhöhten Belastung stehen, ist hier insbesondere auch die Auswirkung von Defekten in der Fügezone auf die mechanischen Kennwerte zu untersuchen. Neben dieser Untersuchung im ausgehärteten Bauteil müssen Konzepte zur frühzeitigen prozessintegrierten Detektion von Imperfektionen im Lagenaufbau des textilen Halbzeugs erarbeitet werden. Hierbei werden die Fragestellungen von den Projektpartnern der TU Dortmund, des Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) und der Universität des Saarlandes gemeinschaftlich betrachtet.


[ 50 ] Brabandt, D.; Berger, D.; Brenner, D.; Heinzler, A. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtung von In-line-Messtechnik in Werkzeugmaschinen“, ZWF - Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Band 4, S. 210-213.
Abstract:
Für die prozessintegrierte Regelung von Fertigungsprozessen steht eine Vielzahl von Messverfahren zur Verfügung. Ein möglicher Ansatz ist die “In-situ”-Integration der Messtechnik in der Werkzeugmaschine. Dies verkürzt den Informationsaustausch zwischen der Messung und der Fertigung und reduziert die Nebenzeiten des Prozesses. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchungen war, ein “In-situ”-Integrationskonzept am Beispiel einer Getriebefertigung monetär zu bewerten. Die Ergebnisse der Kostenanalyse zeigen, dass der Einsatz des “In-situ”-Integrationskonzepts in unterschiedlichen Szenarien innerhalb der Fertigung zu monetären Vorteilen führen kann.


[ 51 ] Friedli, T.; Lanza, G.; Schuh, G.; Reuter, C.; Arndt, T. & Fränken, B. (2015), „Industrie 4.0 - ein Beitrag zur Entwicklung von "Smart Networks"“, ZWF - Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, Nr. 6, S. 378-382.
Abstract:
Eng verknüpft mit der Entwicklung zur Industrie 4.0 steht der Begriff Smart Factory. Die nächste industrielle Revolution bietet jedoch nicht nur Potenziale in Bezug auf den Einzelstandort, sondern auch für die effiziente Vernetzung von Standorten zu einem Smart Network. Entsprechend ist Industrie 4.0 in der Lage, einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Management globaler Produktionsnetzwerke zu leisten. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird erläutert, welchen Einfluss Industrie 4.0 auf das strategische Management, die Gestaltung und die Steuerung von Produktionsnetzwerken haben kann. Dabei wird insbesondere aufgezeigt, welche Voraussetzungen auf dem Weg zu Smart Networks zu schaffen sind und inwieweit die Leistungsfähigkeit von Produktionsnetzwerken dadurch positiv beeinflusst wird.


[ 52 ] Hochdörffer, J.; Bürgin, J. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Deutsch-chinesische Industriekooperationen - Industrielle Synergien zwischen Baden-Württemberg und dem Suzhou Industrial Park“, Industrie Management, Band 5, S. 57-61.
Abstract:
Baden-Württemberg und der Suzhou Industrial Park gelten als innovative und wirtschaftsstarke Gebiete in Deutschland bzw. in China. Kooperationen zwischen dort ansässigen Unternehmen bieten daher vielversprechende Synergiepotentiale. Durch leitfadenorientierte Interviews mit 25 Experten aus Baden-Württemberg und der Provinz Jiangsu wurden industrielle Synergien identifiziert. Enge Kooperationen werden vor allem von chinesischen Unternehmen angestrebt, um in China in den Wachstumsfeldern Automatisierungstechnik und Umwelttechnik gemeinsame Lösungen anbieten zu können.


[ 53 ] Brabandt, D.; Hettich, S. & Lanza, G. (2015), „Messtechnik für die Qualitätssicherung von Carbonfaser-Preforms“, Lightweight Design, S. 20-25.
Abstract:
Um in der Großserienfertigung Carbonfaser-Preforms bewerten zu können, ist eine prozessintegrierte Defektdetektion nötig. Hierbei ist eine Messtechnik zu wählen, die zum einen die Erfassung von Defekten in 3D ermöglicht und zum anderen mit den Eigenschaften des Materials und dem Bauteil zurechtkommt. Die vorgestellte Messstation des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie bietet durch die Kombination von zwei Laserlichtschnittsystemen sowie durch die Höhennachführung der Sensorsysteme die Möglichkeit, komplexe Geometrien zu erfassen.


[ 54 ] Lanza, G.; Jondral, A. & Drotleff, U. (2012), „Valuation of increased production system performance by integrated production systems“, Production Engineering Research and Development, S. 79-87.
Abstract:
Since the 1990s a transition from mass production systems to integrated production systems has been taking place. Realising the potential of integrated production systems to reduce costs by avoiding waste, more and more companies follow the example of Toyota and try to increase their production systems’ performance by applying lean elements and methods. However, the lack of a holistic methodology to forecast the profitability of the application of lean elements and methods impedes the justification of necessary investments. This paper presents an approach developed at the Institute of Production Science (wbk) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to valuate the increased performance of a production system by lean elements and methods. By simulating and optimising the analysed production system, the ideal combination of lean methods can be identified. Key performance indicators of the real and ideal states of the production system can then be used to quantify the effects of the ideal combination of lean methods.


Nichtreferierte Beiträge bei wesentlichen Fachtagungen

[ 1 ] Lemmerer, C.; Schieder, P.; Biegler, C.; Arndt, T.; Lanza, G. & Sihn, W. (2016), „Amplification of Supply Chain Performance Measurement Systems by Sustainability Key Performance Indicators“. Proceedings of the 8th International Scientific Conference: Management of Technology – Step to Sustainable Production (MOTSP 2016), Hrsg. Croatian Association for PLM, S. 182-189.
Abstract:
Due to today’s rapidly changing trends, global supply chains have to face complex challenges especially concerning sustainability aspects like climate change and scarcity of natural resources. Established supply chain performance measurement systems (SCPMS) neglect the impact of those factors. This paper aims at providing an approach for an SCPMS including performance measures with sustainable relevance to include the trends mentioned above. Based on state-of-the-art SCPMS and sustainability key performance indicators focusing on ecological aspects, an integrated method to strategically control global supply chains is developed. A set of metrics is presented and its qualitative interdependencies are discussed.


[ 2 ] Colledani, M.; Silipo, L.; Yemane, A.; Lanza, G.; Bürgin, J.; Hochdörffer, J.; Georgoulias, K.; Mourtzis, D.; Bitte, F.; Bernard, A. & Belkadi, F. (2016), „Technology-based Product-services for Supporting Frugal Innovation“. Procedia CIRP 47, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 126-131.
Abstract:
In recent years, European manufacturing companies are gradually applying innovative PSS (Product Service Systems), as strategic opportunity for differentiating from competitors, offering an integrated bundle of products and services, targeted on specific needs of different customers. At the same time, frugal innovation has also surged as a new business concept based upon an intelligent use of resources to fulfill region-dependent customers’ needs. Both approaches bring forth rethinking of established business models, which in turn asks for an in-depth analysis of the implications on the company organization and infrastructure, at supply chain and plant levels, urging towards manufacturing networks and reconfigurable assembly lines. This paper presents a formalized framework to support product-service design and the related business model characterization, in the context of frugal innovation. The methodology is applied to three real industrial scenarios respectively in the aeronautics, the domestic appliances and the machinery industry, which are analyzed within the framework of the H2020 European funded project ‘ProRegio’.


[ 3 ] Pangboonyanon, W.; Zaiß, M.; Fleischer, J. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Optimization of Prozess Chain for Continuous-Discontinuous Long Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structures“. Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM17), Hrsg. European Society for Composite Materials (ESCM), A., S. 1-8.
Abstract:
The integration of sheet molding compound (SMC) as discontinuous fiber reinforced plastics (DiCoFRP) and unidirectional fiber reinforced tapes (UD-Tape) as continuous fiber reinforced plastics (CoFRP) aims to provide a novel cost-effective hybrid material with better mechanical properties. For the handling of the combined CoDiCo-semi-finished part, the reliable gripping during the overall process chain is important. For complex 2.5D contours, the combination of preforming technology and handling technology is worthwhile. In order to combine both technologies, the separately consideration of handling and preforming technology is necessary. This study considers on one hand the necessity of the preform step for CoDiCo-semi-finished parts, on the other hand the possibility to integrate the UD-tape with SMC. Moreover, the quality of the preformed semi-finished parts effects directly on mechanical properties of final parts, the quality assurance system is therefore necessary, in order to ensure a defect free product during preforming step and to guarantee fast reaction, in case any defects are detected. One objective of this project is to generate methods for holistic quality assurance during manufacturing of 3D SMC parts with integrated unidirectional-fibers. Therefore, sensor systems, thermography, ultrasound and acoustic methods will be used.


[ 4 ] Kopf, R. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Strategic planning of immature Technologies for serial application using the example of selective laser melting“. 2016 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), Hrsg. O.H., S. 621-625.
Abstract:
The serial application of a new technology requires a positive monetary valuation of the technologies overall costs including the development project and manufacturing benefits. The endeavor of planning and therefore also assessing an immature technology's serial application is severely hampered by strong advances in the technology's development. In most cases, previous research has not taken future stages of development into account. Hence, this paper aims at assessing and planning an immature technology's serial application under consideration of future stages of development. The methodology shall be introduced using the example of the additive manufacturing process of selective laser melting (SLM). For the purpose of reaching this objective, a cost model supporting the planning process shall be elaborated and combined with a scenario analysis for forecasting future technological development.


[ 5 ] Stricker, N.; Micali, M.; Dornfeld, D. & Lanza, G. (2016), „Considering Interdependencies of KPIs“. Procedia Manufacturing, Hrsg. Elsevier, S. 300-307.
Abstract:
When an assembly line experiences downtime, it incurs both financial and productivity costs, in addition to environmental costs resulting from ineilicient or ineffective uses of resources. Material is wasted in the form of scrapped work in progress (WIP), and enery is wasted in powering the machines and facilities while the line is restored to an operational state. This work performs an analysis of key periormance indicators (KPls) to investigate their potential impacts in maximizing the uptime of a simulated assembly line with automation and quality inspection. Previous work has not considered the linkages between baseline KPls. The interdependencies and effects of baseline KPls such as preventative maintenance time, corrective maintenance time, time to failure, and others are explored in order to analyze the production system on a more granular Ievel. The results of this work inform production planning efforts and enable more eflective and sustainable operation.


Nichtreferierte Beiträge in Büchern und monographischen Reihen

[ 1 ] Fleischer, J.; Nyhuis, P.; Schuh, G. & Serwotka, H. (2006), Proaktive Anlaufsteuerung entlang der Wertschöpfungskette von Produktionssystemen (ProactAS), VDMA Verlag, Frankfurt/Main. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-8163-0547-7
Abstract:
ProactAS steht für Proaktive Anlaufsteuerung entlang der Wertschöpfungskette. Es handelt sich um eine modulare Softwareplattform, die die Beteiligten eines Produktionsanlaufs vom Zeitpunkt der Planung der Anlagentechnik bis über das Erreichen der Kammlinie hinaus dabei unterstützt, Störungen frühzeitig zu erkennen und effiziente Maßnahmen zur Störungsbeseitigung einleiten zu können. Hierdurch soll einerseits ein früherer Markteintritt und andererseits eine Kostenreduktion realisiert werden. Oberste Prämisse ist der zielgerichtete und effiziente Einsatz der begrenzten Ressourcen, um bei aktuellen und prognostizierten Planabweichungen schnell undaufwandsarm gegensteuern zu können und damit eine signifikante Verkürzung des Anlaufs zu erreichen. Eigentlich für die Automobil- und Automobilzulieferindustrie entwickelt, ist jedes Softwaremodul für sich einsetzbar, so dass alle Module auch für andere Branchen nutzbar sind. Basis der Idee ist es, den Produktionsanlauf mit den neuen Anlagen, den Materialien und der Inbetriebnahmemannschaft als Regelkreis zu verstehen und das Personal zu befähigen, zu jeder Zeit sowohl die aktuelle als auch die zukünftige Situation des Anlaufes zu erkennen und ursachengerecht zu analysieren. Der Begriff „Produktionscockpit“ veranschaulicht plastisch die Gesamtfunktion. Zur Realisierung der Proaktiven Anlaufsteuerung wurden im Rahmen von ProactAS verschiedene Kern- und Unterstützungskomponenten entwickelt.


[ 2 ] Lanza, G. & Ender, T. (2007), ProactAS - Die Idee, VDMA Verlag, Frankfurt am Main.

[ 3 ] Lanza, G. & Weiler, S. (2008), Leitfaden zum Aufbau von Lieferanten in Niedriglohnländern, Projektberichte des wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik der Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe.

[ 4 ] Lanza, G. & Weiler, S. (2008), Leitfaden zum Aufbau von Lieferanten in Niedriglohnländern., Projektbericht des wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik der Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe.

[ 5 ] Lanza, G. & Meier, H. (2009), Kooperative Geschäftsmodelle zur Integration von Sachgut und Dienstleistung, VDMA Verlag, Frankfurt. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-8163-0569-9

[ 6 ] Lanza, G. (2011), Bericht der Promotorengruppe Mobilität Empfehlungen zum Zukunftsprojekt »Nachhaltig bewegt, energieeffizient mobil«..
Abstract:
Mobilität ist ein wesentliches Merkmal des modernen Menschen. Sie gibt ihm persönliche Freiheit und erhöht seine Lebensqualität. Sie ist einerseits Basis seines wirtschaftlichen Handelns, macht ihm Güter aus aller Welt zugänglich und fördert seinen Wohlstand. Sie ermöglicht ihm andererseits soziale Begegnungen und bereichert seine Erlebniswelt. Dabei steigt das Bedürfnis nach Mobilität weltweit, was zu Herausforderungen hinsichtlich der Abhängigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen und damit auch der Sicherung des Wirtschaftsstandorts Deutschland führt. Dies geht einher mit der Notwendigkeit, die Luftqualität zu sichern und die Lärmemissionen zu reduzieren, insbesondere in den Mega-Städten und Ballungszentren, in denen immer mehr Menschen wohnen.


[ 7 ] Lanza, G.; Peters, S.; Schuler, D. & Ender, T. (2011), Chancen und Risiken des deutschen Maschinen- und Anlagenbaus in der chinesischen Automobilindustrie.

[ 8 ] Lanza, G.; Gausemeier, J. & Lindemann, U. (2012), Produkte und Produktionssysteme integrativ konzipieren , Carl Hanser Verlag, München. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-446-42825-6
Abstract:
Im globalen Wettbewerb kann nur bestehen, wer Spitzenprodukte zu wettbewerbsfähigen Preisen rasch in den Markt bringt. Ferner kommt es darauf an, sich auf sich ändernde Einflüsse einzurichten, beispielsweise neue Fertigungstechnologien, Schwankungen in den Stückzahlen oder in der Variantenzahl über den Produktlebenszyklus.
Dies bezeichnen wir als Robustheit. Weiterhin erhöht die Durchdringung der Produkte und Leistungserstellungsprozesse mit Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik die Komplexität der Produktentstehung. Im Zuge der Produktentstehung sind Abhängigkeiten der Domänen Mechanik, Elektronik/Elektrik und Software sowie zwischen Produkt- und Produktionssystementwicklung zu beachten. Heute finden diese Abhängigkeiten nur unzureichend Berücksichtigung. Die Folge sind aufwändige Iterationsschleifen im Entwicklungsprozess. Das Verbundprojekt VireS -Virtuelle Synchronisation von Produktentwicklung und Produktionssystementwicklung stellt sich dieser Herausforderung. Ziel war ein Instrumentarium zur integrativen Entwicklung von Produkt und Produktionssystem unter frühzeitiger Berücksichtigung der Aspekte Kosten und Robustheit.


[ 9 ] Lanza, G. & Ruhrmann, S. (2013), Leitfaden zur Planung und Durchführung von Sourcingprojekten, FQS, Frankfurt am Main.
Abstract:
In Folge der Globalisierung und des verschärften Wettbewerbs suchen kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMUs) kontinuierlich nach Möglichkeiten zur Kostensenkung. Der Fokus der unternehmerischen Aktivitäten rückt dabei zunehmend auf ihre Kernkompetenzen. Gleichzeitig steigt die strategische Bedeutung von Einkauf und Beschaffung. Aufgrund der globalen Vernetzung der Wirtschaftsräume versuchen viele Unternehmen durch Beschaffung in Niedriglohnländern weitere Kostensenkungspotentiale zu realisieren. Die Herausforderungen bei der Lieferantequalifizierung und -entwicklung, insbesondere drohende Qualitätseinbußen und ein erhöhter Koordinationsaufwand, sind dabei jedoch nicht zu vernachlässigen. Daher sind potentielle Lieferanten einer umfassenden Bewertung zu unterziehen, um über die Vorteilhaftigkeit der Lieferantenqualifizierung kontinuierlich entscheiden zu können. Bestehende Ansätze zur Lieferantenbewertung dienen der einmaligen Beurteilung und Entscheidungsfindung in Sourcingprojekten. Sie berücksichtigen jedoch keine dynamischen Entwicklungen und Risiken. Mit dem Leitfaden wurde eine neue und umfassende Methode zur systematischen Planung und Durchführung von Sourcingprojekten entwickelt. Der Leitfaden unterstützt Un-ternehmen bei sämtlichen projektrelevanten Schritten, von der IST-Analyse bis hin zur Entscheidung über Lieferantenentwicklungsmaßnahmen. Marktdynamiken und Risiken werden ebenfalls integriert, um dynamisch auf veränderte Umfeldeinflüsse reagieren zu können. Durch die Anwendung des Konzepts der FQS strukturieren Unternehmen den Aufwand einer Lieferantenentwicklung und entscheiden nach bestimmten Projektphasen über die Projektfortführung. Dazu stehen den Unternehmen zwei in MS Excel® umgesetzte Softwarefunktionsmuster zur Verfügung, die die Anwendung in der Praxis erleichtern.


[ 10 ] Lanza, G.; Kleine, O. & Horváth, P. . (2014), Den Wandel beherrschen - Produktionsnetzwerke gestalten, LOG_X Verlag GmbH, Ludwigsburg. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-932298-52-3

[ 11 ] Lanza, G.; Munzinger, C.; Fleischer, J.; Ruch, D. & Elser, J. (2009), „Flexible und intelligente Greiftechnik“ in Integration von Umformen, Trennen und Fügen für die flexible Fertigung von leichten Tragwerkstrukturen, Hrsg. Tekkaya, A. E., VDI Verlag GmbH, Düsseldorf, S. 275-294. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-18-366802-1
Abstract:
Zur genauen Bearbeitung räumlich gekrümmter Strangpressprofile ist die exakte Kenntnis der räumlichen Lage und Orientierung des zu bearbeitenden Profils innerhalb der Bearbeitungsmaschine zwingend notwendig. Zusätzlich erschweren Abweichungen der Ist- von der Soll-Profilkontur eine präzise Bearbeitung. Dieser Artikel stellt eine auf bauteil-immanenten Markierungen aufbauende Vorgehensweise zur Positionierung und Konturerfassung nahezu beliebig gekrümmter Profile vor. Ausgehend von der Zielsetzung werden die am Institut für Produktionstechnik (wbk) der Universität Karlsruhe (TH) erarbeiteten Ansätze und der daraus resultierende messtechnische Versuchsaufbau beschrieben. Der Aufbau einer anforderungsgerechten Markierungsgeometrie zur Positionierung und Konturerfassung wird hergeleitet. Abschließend werden erste Versuchsergebnisse vorgestellt. Spatially curved extrusion profiles can only be processed in accordance with high quality standards if the spatial position and orientation of the profile inside the machine tool are known. Any deviations of the profile geometry may also cause processing inaccuracies.Against this background, the article describes a procedure for the positioning and contour detection of almost any spatially curved tube profile based on component-specific markings. Beginning with the objective, the approaches elaborated at the Institute of Production Science (wbk) of the University of Karlsruhe (TH) and the procedure developed on the basis of these results are described. Subsequently, the first empirical results of segmential contour detection are illustrated. The article explains a method for the derivation of a marking geometry particularly suitable for the requirements of this application.


[ 12 ] Lanza, G.; Behmann, B. & Niggeschmidt, S. (2009), „Nutzen- und Kostenprognose hybrider Produkte mittels einer Simulation der Ausfall- und Servicekosten“ in Kooperative Geschäftsmodelle zu Integration von Sach-und Dienstleistung, Hrsg. VDMA, VDMA Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, S. 52-72. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-8163-0569-9
Abstract:
Im Rahmen des Projektes Ogemo.net galt es, Methoden zur Nutzen- und Leistungsbewertung hybrider Produkte, also der Kombination aus Sach- und Dienstleistung, zu entwickeln [MEI-06, LUG-06]. Um die oben genannte Methode zur Prognose der Ausfall- und Instandsetzungskosten von produktionstechnischen Maschinen und Anlagen unter Berücksichtigung produktbegleitender Dienstleistungen zu entwickeln, anzuwenden und zu validieren, ist neben komplexen Berechnungsschritten eine breite Datenbasis notwendig. Daher wurde im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes ein prototypisches Software-Tool entwickelt, das die Datenbasis mit den Berechnungsmethoden zusammenführt und automatisiert. Dieser sogenannte Servicekonfigurator stellt den Anwendern zwei wichtige Auswertungen zur Verfügung: zum einen eine Leistungsbewertung von produktbegleitenden Dienstleistungen und zum anderen ein Kalkulationsinstrument zur Berechnung von Garantie- und Servicekosten sowie den damit verbundenen Risiken. Produktbegleitende Dienstleistungen können nur dann erfolgreich vermarktet werden, wenn der Kunde dadurch einen Mehrwert erhält und dieser entsprechend quantifiziert werden kann. Hersteller und Betreiber von Anlagen und Maschinen erhalten mit dem Servicekonfigurator die Möglichkeit, die durch das Ausfallverhalten verursachten Kosten zu ermitteln und sie dem Nutzen aus Verfügbarkeitssteigerungen durch produktbegleitende Dienstleistungen gegenüberzustellen [VDI-86]. Durch diese Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse bietet das Software-Tool den Maschinenherstellern die Gelegenheit, ihre angebotenen Dienstleistungen strategisch zu platzieren [FLE-07a]. Neben der Entwicklung und Implementierung des Software-Tools galt es ferner, den Servicekonfigurator exemplarisch bei den Verbundpartnern anzuwenden und zu validieren. Die Konzeption sowie die Implementierung des Servicekonfigurators wird in den nachfolgenden Kapiteln dargestellt.


[ 13 ] Lanza, G. & Brabandt, D. (2013), „Design of a measurement machine for quality assurance of preforms in the CFRP process chain“ in ISMTII 2013: Metrology - Master Global Challenges, Hrsg. ISMTII, Apprimus Verlag, Aachen, S. 255-256. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-863-59138-0
Abstract:
Sustainable individual mobility can only be achieved by reducing the energy consumption and consequently the CO2 emissions. Solutions therefore can be found by using lightweight materials which lead to a reduction of the moving mass of cars. To exploit the entire potential of lightweight design, Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) are more and more considered by the automotive industry. However, due to the current low automation rate and high production costs especially Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) are not widely used in high volume production.
An essential step towards an industrialization of the production process of CFRP is the implementation of a capable quality assurance strategy into the process technology. Here especially the draping-process - the forming operation of semi-finished textiles - has to be considered, because of the multiple imperfections which can occur here.
This paper will provide an approach for the design of a measurement machine for quality assurance of preforms in the CFRP process chain. Thereby the requirements concerning the machine as well as the used measurement systems will be discussed.


[ 14 ] Fleischer, J.; Munzinger, C.; Lanza, G.; Otter, M. & Ochs, A. (2011), „Kombinierte Handhabungs- und Bearbeitungskinematik “ in Integration von Umformen, Trennen und Fügen für die flexible Fertigung von leichten Tragwerkstrukturen. Ergebnisbericht der Phase II, Hrsg. Tekkaya, E. & Baier, H., Fortschr. Ber. VDI Reihe 2, Düsseldorf, S. 363-386. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-18-367802-0
Abstract:
Gerundete Aluminium-Strangpressprofile für leichte Tragwerksstrukturen produktflexibel und automatisiert zu bearbeiten, ist mit derzeitiger Maschinentechnik nur unter hohem technischen Aufwand möglich. Zur Flexibilisierung des Bearbeitungsprozesses wurde im Rahmen des Sonderforschungsbereiches Transregio 10 ein neuartiges Maschinenkonzept entwickelt und prototypisch umgesetzt. Der Schwerpunkt liegt dabei in der Integration von Handhabung und Bearbeitung in einem ganzheitlichen Ansatz. Um eine komplette, präzise und automatisierte Bearbeitung von dreidimensionalen Aluminium-Strangpressprofilen darstellen zu können, liegt der Fokus der bestehenden Arbeiten auf der Genauigkeitssteigerung der Maschinentechnik, der Integration ausgewählter Zusatzprozesse sowie dem Aufbau einer einfachen und effizienten Programmierumgebung. [3] Tekkaya, A.E.; Baier, H.; Biermann, D.; Fleischer, J.; Schulze, V.; Zäh, M.F.; Pietzka, D.: Integration von Urformen, Trennen und Fügen für die flexible Fertigung von leichten Tragwerksstrukturen - Der SFB/TR10, Ergebnisbericht der Phase II, Fortschritt - Berichte VDI, Reihe 2, Nr. 678, Düsseldorf: VDI Verlag 2011, ISBN 978-3-18-367802-0


[ 15 ] Lanza, G.; Fleischer, J.; Munzinger, C. & Elser, J. (2011), „Flexible und intelligente Greiftechnik“ in Integration von Umformen, Trennen und Fügen für die flexible Fertigung von leichten Tragwerkstrukturen - Ergebnisbericht der Phase II, 1. Januar 2007 bis 31. Dezember 2010, Hrsg. Tekkaya, E. & Baier, H., VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, S. 339-362. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-18-367802-0
Abstract:
One of the main challenges within the SFB/TR 10 process chain consists in handling and precise machining of variable formed profiles without changing over the jigs and fixtures. For this the profile contour as well as the spatial position and orientation of the profile have to be known. To provide this information, a component-specific scale for contour detection and precision posi-tioning of multi-dimensionally formed extrusion profiles was developed and realised. The scale is scribed onto the surface of the profile by a laser. To determine the contour, the scale is scanned using digital image processing and the profile contour is measured by a laser triangulation sensor. This article describes the general approach, the achieved measurement accuracies as well as the implementation of this approach within an automated process chain for the flexible production of space-frame structures.


[ 16 ] Lanza, G.; Viering, B. & Härtig, F. (2011), „Experimentelle Messunsicherheitsbestimmung bei Mikroverzahnungsmessungen“ in Messunsicherheit praxisgerecht bestimmen, Hrsg. VDI Wissensforum GmbH, VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf , S. 29-38. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-18-092149-5
Abstract:
Mikrozahnräder kommen vor allem als wesentlicher Bestandteil von Mikrogetrieben in verschiedensten Branchen, wie beispielsweise der Medizintechnik oder der Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, zum Einsatz. Die Anforderungen an die Präzision und Leistungsfähigkeit dieser Mikrogetriebe steigen, wodurch der Qualitätssicherung und speziell der geometrischen Beurteilung der Mikrozahnräder eine verstärkte Bedeutung zukommt. In diesem Beitrag wird ein Mikroverzahnungsnormal vorgestellt, mit dem experimentell die Messunsicherheit bei der Messung von Mikrozahnrädern ermittelt werden kann.


[ 17 ] Moser, R.; Greinacher, S.; Özsahin, M.; Schukraft, S.; Heidling, E. & Meil, P. (2014), „Wandlungstreiber klassifizieren“ in Den Wandel beherrschen - Produktionsnetzwerke gestalten, Hrsg. Horváth, P.; Kleine, O. & Lanza, G., LOG_X Verlag GmbH, Ludwigsburg, S. 26-29. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-932298-52-3
Abstract:
Einflussfaktoren und Wandlungstreiber lassen sich identifizieren und klassifizieren. Das ist die gute Nachricht. Die schlechte: Das ist nicht ohne Aufwand zu haben. An erster Stelle steht die Frage, woher die identifizierten Wandlungstreiber kommen - ...


[ 18 ] Moser, R. & Greinacher, S. (2014), „Multikriterielle Optimierung“ in Den Wandel beherrschen - Produktionsnetzwerke gestalten, Hrsg. Horváth, P.; Kleine, O. & Lanza, G., LOG_X Verlag GmbH, Ludwigsburg, S. 108-111. ISBN/ISSN: 978-3-932298-52-3
Abstract:
Die Entscheidungstheorie ist eine Wissenschaft. Deshalb kann es nicht verwundern, dass es für komplexe Entscheidungsprobleme auch komplexe, wissenschaftliche Lösungsansätze gibt. Einer dieser Ansätze ist die multikriterielle Optimierung, die im folgenden Abschnitt in groben Zügen vorgestellt wird.