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Benjamin_Haefner

Dr.-Ing. Benjamin Häfner

Group leader
department: Production Systems
office hours: to be agreed
room: 111, Geb. 50.36
phone: +49 1523 9502585
fax: +49 721 608-45005
Benjamin HaefnerJew3∂kit edu

Campus Süd



Dr.-Ing. Benjamin Häfner

Areas of Research:

 

General Tasks:

 

Dissertation: Lifetime prognosis dependent on the manufacturing deviations of micro gears

 

Curriculum Vitae:

05/2017 Promotion (Dr.-Ing.) at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
01/2016 - 04/2016 Research Visit at Massachussetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachussetts, USA
since 01/2016 Chief Engineer Global Production Strategies and Quality Assurance at the Institute of Production Science (wbk) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
01/2012 - 12/2015 Research Associate at the Institute of Production Science (wbk) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
07/2009 - 05/2010 Study of Mechanical Engineering (M.Sc.) at Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia, USA
09/2006 - 10/2011 Study of Business Engineering (Dipl.-Wi.-Ing.) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
26/11/1984 Born in Schwaebisch Hall

 

Publications

[ 1 ] Lanza, G.; Schulze, V.; Stockey, S.; Chlipala, M. & Haefner, B. (2012), "Automated Measurement Data Analysis for Micro Structured Surfaces". Proceedings of 12th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, eds. European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, Sieca Repro, pp. 235-238.
Abstract:
Microstructures applied to the surface of a friction bearing are able to improve the behavior of the part. Due to the challenges regarding the production processes of microstructured surfaces an automated and user-independent in-line quality assurance can make a contribution to improve the production processes significantly. Therefore a three stage measurment filter was developed in order to automatically detect microstructures on the surface even under the restriction of a bad signal-noise ratio.

[ 2 ] Lanza, G.; Viering, B. & Haefner, B. (2012), "Experimental Approach for Proposing the Lifetime of Micro Gears Through Their Shape Deviations". Proceedings of CIRP General Assembly, eds. Springer, pp. 1-12.
Abstract:
Micro gears as parts of micro transmissions are used in manifold industrial applications. The prediction of their lifetime is crucial to ensure their proper operation. For micro gears, geometric shape deviations and material defects have a significant influence on their lifetime. In the presented approach a model for the predition of the lifetime of micro gears is proposed which depends on their geometric shape deviations and material defects. The model is developed based on systematic abrasive experiments, geometric characterization of the micro gears by means of CMM and CT measurements and Weibull analysis.

[ 3 ] Lanza, G.; Blank, T. & Haefner, B. (2013), "Design for Testability for Micro-Mechatronic Systems". Proceedings of 23rd CIRP Design Conference, eds. Elsevier, Springer-Verlag, pp. 283-292.
Abstract:
The development and manufacturing of highly precise micro-mechatronic systems, such as MEMS applications, is a challenging task due to the complexity and variety of their manufacturing technologies, as well as their high quality requirements. Within the context of the product engineering process of micro-mechatronic systems, quality inspection by means of production measurement technology is a crucial factor. This paper presents a survey of the challenges regarding quality inspection of micro-mechatronic systems. Furthermore, a Design for Testability approach for these types of products is described and exemplary applications of its implementation are shown.

[ 4 ] Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2015), "Funktionsorientierte Qualitätssicherung zur Lebensdauerprognose von Mikrozahnrädern". Tagungsband zum 5. Kongress zur Getriebeproduktion (GETPRO), eds. Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik e.V., pp. 267-278.
Abstract:
Mikrogetriebe kommen heute in Kombination mit Mikromotoren in vielfältigen industriellen Anwendungen zum Einsatz. Beispiele stellen Dentalbohrer oder Ausrüstung für die mini-mal-invasive Chirurgie in der Medizintechnik, Hexapod-Mikropositionierungssysteme zur Waferbearbeitung im Bereich der industriellen Automatisierung oder verstellbare Automo-bilkomponenten wie Befestigungen von LCD-Monitoren dar. Mikrogetriebe bestehen aus Mikrozahnrädern mit einem Modul < 200 μm, die entscheidenden Einfluss auf die Funkti-onserfüllung der Getriebe haben. Um den gewünschten Betrieb der Mikrozahnräder zu gewährleisten, ist eine zuverlässige Vorhersage von deren Lebensdauer entscheidend. Bestehende Normen werden den Be-sonderheiten von Mikrozahnrädern hierfür jedoch nicht gerecht. Insbesondere weisen Mik-rozahnräder im Verhältnis zur Bauteilgröße deutlich höhere Fertigungsabweichungen auf, sodass ein größerer Einfluss dieses Einflussfaktors auf die Tragfähigkeit zu erwarten ist als bei Makrozahnrädern. In diesem Beitrag wird ein neuartiger Ansatz präsentiert, mit dem die Lebensdauer von Mik-rozahnrädern unter Berücksichtigung der Fertigungsabweichungen auf Basis von Lebens-dauerversuchen bewertet werden kann. Hierzu werden Zahnradpaarungen systematisch unter realitätsnahen, klar definierten Bedingungen ermüdet, bis ein Defekt an einem der Mikrozahnräder auftritt. Dies kann mit Hilfe einer hochpräzisen experimentellen Messan-ordnung durchgeführt werden. Vor und an definierten Zeitpunkten während der Versuchs-durchführung wird die 3D-Geometrie der Mikrozahnräder mittels eines hochgenauen Mikro-Koordinatenmessgeräts vollflächig gemessen. Auf Basis der geometrischen Messdaten werden FEM-Analysen der Zahnräder durchgeführt, um die charakteristischen Belastungen an den Zahnflanken zu berechnen. Aus den experimentellen Daten kann schließlich ein Modell zur Lebensdauerprognose unter Berücksichtigung der Ausfallwahrscheinlichkeit abgeleitet werden.

[ 5 ] Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2015), "Function-Oriented Measurements of Micro Gears for Lifetime Evaluation". Proceedings of SENSOR 2015, pp. 441-446.
Abstract:
Nowadays, micro transmissions are used in combination with micro motors in manifold industrial applications, e.g. in the medical industry in actively controlled prostheses. Micro transmissions consist of micro gears with a module < 200 μm. The main function of micro gears is a proper operation over the required lifetime. Lifetime evaluation is particularly important for micro gears, as the influence of geometric shape deviations is very large. Efficient production metrology is based on function-oriented measurements. Thus, in this article, a methodology is introduced to enable a function-oriented evaluation of micro gear measurements. For this purpose, high-precision 3D CMM measuring data are processed by finite element method (FEM) simulation to calculate the characteristic loads. These are correlated with experimental data of lifetime experiments.

[ 6 ] Lanza, G.; Haefner, B. & Krämer, A. (2015), "Optimization of selective assembly and adaptive manufacturing by means of cyber-physical system based matching", CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, pp. 399-402.
Abstract:
In high-tech production, companies often deal with the manufacturing of assemblies with quality requirements close to the technological limits. Selective and adaptive production systems are means to cope with this challenge. In this context new measurement technologies and IT-systems offer the opportunity to generate and use real-time quality data along the process chain and to control the production system adaptively. In this article, a holistic matching approach to optimize the performance of selective and adaptive assembly systems is presented and its industrial application within an automotive electric drive assembly is demonstrated.

[ 7 ] Haefner, B.; Quiring, M.; Gullasch, J.; Glaser, G. & Lanza, G. (2015), "Finite Element Simulation for Quality Dependent Lifetime Analysis of Micro Gears". Procedia CIRP, eds. Elsevier, pp. 41-46.
Abstract:
Nowadays, micro motors are used in combination with micro transmissions in manifold industrial applications such as dental drills or the equipment for minimally invasive surgery in the medical industry, hexapod micro positioning systems for wafer processing in the field of industrial automation or adjustable automotive components such as fixings of LCD monitors. Micro transmissions consist of micro gears, which are critical to their functionality. Micro gears are typically defined as gears with a module which is lower than 200 μm. To ensure proper operation of the micro gears for their expected purpose, a reliable prediction of their lifetime is crucial. Lifetime evaluation is particularly important for micro gears, as the influence of their geometric shape deviations on their load rating is significantly higher in comparison to gears with larger modules. This is a consequence of the larger shape deviations of micro gears in relation to their part size due to their manufacturing processes. The lifetime of micro gears can be evaluated by an experimental approach. Within this a pair of micro gears is systematically worn under realistic, clearly defined conditions, until a defect of one of the micro gears can be detected. This can be conducted by means of a highly precise experimental setup. In this article, a methodology to calculate the characteristic loads at the tooth flanks of the pair of micro gears during the experiments based on finite element analysis is introduced. For this purpose, CAD models of the real gear geometry of the specimen are deducted by means of high precision 3D measurements and spline interpolation. On the basis of these data, the lifetime of the micro gears dependent on their shape deviations can be predicted by means of a model based on reliability statistics.

[ 8 ] Lanza, G.; Moser, E.; Stoll, J. & Haefner, B. (2015), "Learning Factory on Global Production". Procedia CIRP, eds. Kreimeier, D., Elsevier, pp. 120-125.
Abstract:
Based on the fundamental principle of teaching psychology that retentiveness increases if students actively apply learning topics rather than only attend oral or visual presentations, the concept of learning factories becomes more and more popular. Academic education in the field of production science is imparted by means of real-world manufacturing facilities. By applying the manufacturing process of a real product, students or professionals incorporate the learning contents effectively and gain consciousness about their practical implications. Most learning factories are focused on lean manufacturing, lean administration or resource efficiency. As today manufacturing is not only subject to a single factory, but a network of globally distributed production sites, at the wbk Institute of Production Science, currently, a learning factory dealing with the topic of global production is developed. On the one hand, the curriculum of the Learning Factory Global Production (LGP) involves the specifics of local production sites with different location factors, such as different degrees of automation, cost structures and qualification levels, and their effects on the reconfigurability of the production systems. On the other hand, the interaction of the production sites in a globally distributed production network and the strategic configuration of the network are also subject to the curriculum. The manufacturing processes are exemplified by the assembly of an automotive e-motor with transmission in the learning factory on global production. The learning factory is realized in cooperation with the Robert Bosch GmbH.

[ 9 ] Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2015), "Quality Dependent Lifetime Prognosis of Micro Gears". Proceedings International Conference on Gears 2015, eds. VDI, pp. 1-10.
Abstract:
Nowadays, micro motors are used in combination with micro transmissions in manifold industrial applications such as dental drills or the equipment for minimally invasive surgery. Micro transmissions consist of micro gears, which are critical to their functionality. To ensure proper operation of the micro gears for their expected purpose, a reliable prediction of their lifetime is crucial. Lifetime evaluation is particularly important for micro gears, as the influence of their geometric shape deviations on their load rating is significantly higher in comparison to gears with larger modules. In this article, a methodology is introduced to enable a quality dependent lifetime prognosis of micro gears. For this, micro gears are systematically operated by means of a highly precise experimental setup, until a defect of one of the gears can be detected. The characteristic loads at the tooth flanks during the experiments can be determined by means of finite element analysis based on CAD models of the real gear geometry of the specimen determined by accompanying 3D CMM measurements. These data can be statistically evaluated

[ 10 ] Hofmann, C.; Lauber, S.; Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2018), "Development of an agile development method based on Kanban for distributed part-time teams and an introduction framework". Advanced Engineering Education & Training for Manufacturing Innovation, eds. Mourtzis, D. & Chryssolouris, G., pp. 45-50.
Abstract:
In the context of Industry 4.0, the development of maintainable and scalable applications becomes a core activity to master for industrial companies. To offer convincing trainings, learning factories have to coordinate the development of IT and hardware solutions with training concepts. The development of maintainable, modular and stable IT solutions in coherence with the hardware is the basis for good trainings. Especially learning factories face the challenge to work with part-time staff that is unfamiliar with large IT and hardware projects, web technology or PLC programming and development methods. In this paper we present a model how to introduce agile methods step-by-step to teams that have to cope with the challenge of a new project paired with a new technology and development methodology without overloading the team. An adapted teaching concept to introduce these development methods has been developed. For each of the maturity levels, tools and processes are presented as well as criteria to indicate when the team is ready to pass to the next level. The paper also presents the results of an application of the model to the development team at the Learning Factory Global Production at wbk.

[ 11 ] Yang, S.; Hamann, K.; Haefner, B.; Wu, C. & Lanza, G. . (2018), "A Method for Improving Production Management Training by Integrating an Industry 4.0 Innovation Center in China". Procedia Manufacturing Volume 23, eds. Elsevier, pp. 213-218.
Abstract:
Production Management is an important issue for organizations that spend considerable amounts of investment annually on personnel training. Especially in the era of Industry 4.0 and Intelligent Manufacturing, considering the exponential growth of new knowledge and information, personnel need to update and supplement the necessary knowledge. Nevertheless, there is a lack of adequate methodology for executing trainings in the field of production management. This paper aims to develop a method for executing production management training which combines online learning and offline training as well as practical parts by using an Industry 4.0 Innovation Center equipped with model devices. A procedure is to first starting with an E-Learning module containing basic knowledge, accessible on the Learning Platform Moodle. Secondly, an on-line survey is created to collect expectations and requirements. Then the training schedule is carried out for execution of professional training. The training part in the innovation center will contribute to build up the basis for adaptions of the training knowledge to practical need of a company. Lastly the test and evaluation is conducted via virtual team room (Vitero). A case study based on training service provider is used to validate the feasibility of the approach. The derived results are presented and conclusions are discussed.

[ 12 ] Yang, S.; Boev, N.; Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2018), "Method for Developing an Implementation Strategy of Cyber-Physical Production Systems for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in China". Procedia CIRP, eds. ELSEVIER, pp. 48-52.
Abstract:
Enabled by the development of internet technologies, cyber-physical production systems (CPPS) are expected to open up entirely new possibilities to improve the efficiency of existing assembly systems of industrial companies. Nevertheless, realizing the potential of CPPS still remains a difficult task for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), given the high variety of improvement possibilities offered by CPPS enabling technologies and the limited resources for their deployment. Hence, it is necessary to develop an implementation strategy of CPPS. Meanwhile, the consideration of location factors could support industrial companies to identify the appropriate CPPS implementation strategy since the location factors highly effect assembly system environment. In this context, a new approach to analyse the influence of location factors on the implementation of CPPS is exposed in this paper, which aims at investigating and identifying of relationships in between. Firstly, an application map of CPPS is generated. Secondly, the manufacturing industry status analyzed and subsequently a catalog of currently important location factors for the assembly systems are identified. Then a qualitative model of a relational analysis is established by an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm. An industrial case study is used to demonstrate the applicability and the validity of the proposed approach.

[ 13 ] Haefner, B.; Biehler, M.; Wagner, R. & Lanza, G. (2018), "Meta-Model Based on Artificial Neural Networks for Tooth Root Stress Analysis of Micro-Gears". Procedia CIRP 75, eds. Elsevier, pp. 155-160.
Abstract:
Micro-transmissions, consisting of micro-gears with a module <200µm, are used in manifold industrial applications, e.g. the medical industry. Due to the technological limits of their manufacturing processes, micro-gears show large shape deviations compared to their size, which significantly influence their lifetime. Thus, for micro-gears a model has been developed to enable a prognosis of their lifetime based on areal measurements of the gear geometry, finite elements simulations as well as lifetime experiments. To significantly reduce the amount of experiments, existing prior knowledge is additionally used as input to the lifetime model by means of Bayesian statistics. To enable a time-efficient application of the model for industrial series production, in this article the application of a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is investigated. The uncertainty of the model is evaluated according to the principles of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM).

[ 14 ] Buergin, J.; Helming, S.; Blaettchen, P.; Schweizer, Y.; Bitte, F.; Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2018), "Local order scheduling for mixed-model assembly lines in the aircraft manufacturing industry", Production Engineering Research and Development, pp. 1-9.
Abstract:
Multi-variant products to be assembled on mixed-model assembly lines at locations within a production network need to be scheduled locally. Scheduling is a highly complex task especially if it simultaneously covers the assignment of orders, which are product variants to be assembled within a production period, to assembly lines as well as their sequencing on the lines. However, this is required if workers can flexibly fulfill tasks across stations of several lines and, thus, capacity of workers is shared among the lines. As this is the case for final assembly of the Airbus A320 Family, this paper introduces an optimization model for local order scheduling for mixed-model assembly lines covering both assignment to lines as well as sequencing. The model integrates the planning approaches mixed-model sequencing and level scheduling in order to minimize work overload in final assembly and to level material demand with regard to suppliers. The presented model is validated in the industrial application of the final assembly of the Airbus A320 Family. The results demonstrate significant improvement in terms of less work overload and a more even material demand compared to current planning.

[ 15 ] Wagner, R.; Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2018), "Function-Oriented Quality Control Strategies for High Precision Products". Procedia CIRP 75, eds. Elsevier, pp. 57-62.
Abstract:
Companies are confronted with increasing product quality requirements to manufacture high quality products, close to technological limits, in an economic way. The implementation of adaptive quality control strategies (QCS) in production offers an approach to cope with this challenge. In this paper, new function-oriented QCS by means of selectively assembling multiple components are demonstrated based on a functional product model. The implementation of QCS for fuel injector systems, which must fulfil narrow tolerances regarding the product’s functionality, show benefits in quality and cost-effectiveness. In the approach a functional model of the product and a simulation of the production system are implemented.

[ 16 ] Helming, S.; Buergin, J.; Bitte, F.; Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2019), "Integrated Production and Logistics Planning and Control in Global Production Networks". Advances in Production Research, eds. R. Schmitt and G. Schuh, pp. 637-646.
Abstract:
As a result of the increasing interdependencies within global production networks, the importance of an improved coordination of the associated individual processes is continuously rising. In particular, enormous potential is expected from a stronger integration of production and logistics planning and control. While previous approaches have mainly dealt with the integration of production planning and distribution logistics planning, this paper pursues the goal of integrating the procurement logistics and the production perspectives, considering both predictive and reactive components. To achieve this goal, an initial framework for the integrated procurement logistics and production planning and control is developed and exemplified in the context of an aircraft manufacturer within the scope of this paper.

[ 17 ] Treber, S.; Moser, E.; Helming, S.; Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2019), "Practice-oriented Methodology for Reallocating Production Technologies to Production Locations in Global Production Networks", Production Engineering, pp. 1-9.
Abstract:
An increasingly uncertain and dynamic competitive environment is challenging industrial companies nowadays. Against this backdrop, companies are focusing on their core competences. They organize their production in global production networks. While the competitiveness of production networks could be maintained for a long time by optimizing individual production sites, the overall network is increasingly becoming the focus of attention. In particular, the elimination of redundant production technologies offers the potential to exploit economies of scale, to bundle technology-specific competences and to achieve an increase in efficiency. The purely mathematical optimization models disseminated in research are unable to consider all the sub tasks of planning. For this reason, this article proposes a practice oriented methodology for reallocating production technologies to production locations in global production networks. The procedure consists of three phases: the investigation of current production technology-to-site allocation in the production network, the generation and planning of alternative reallocations as well as the evaluation of reallocations. For testing its practical suitability, the procedure is exemplary applied to the global production network for forging processes of a medical device manufacturer.

[ 18 ] Helming, S.; Haverkamp, C.; Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2019), "Development of a Structured Approach for Reactive Disruption Management in Supply Chain Networks ". Proceedings of the International Conference on Competitive Manufacturing - Knowledge Valorisation in the Age of Digitalization, eds. Dimitrov, D.; Hagedorn-Hansen, D. & von Leipzig, K., pp. 431-437.
Abstract:
Increasing complexity and dynamics in globally distributed supply chain networks makes companies vulnerable to disruptions and does not only require good and robust planning, but also rapid troubleshooting as a reaction to unforeseen events. However, companies often neither possess a targeted approach for the systematic identification and communication of disruptions nor for the appropriate reaction to a disruption and the minimization of its consequences while considering the entire supply chain. Hence, this paper proposes a framework for reactive disruption management which allows for a multi-criteria evaluation and logical selection of measures in case of a disruption.

[ 19 ] Verhaelen, B.; Thomas, K.; Haefner, B.; Lanza, G. & Schuh, G. (2019), "Potenziale datenbasierter Produktallokationen", ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 96-100. https://doi.org/10.3139/104.112053
Abstract:
Die Technologie der Datensammlung und -analyse hat sich in den letzten Jahren vor allem durch die revolutionäre Entwicklung von Industrie 4.0 in der Produktion stark verändert. Viele verschiedene Mess­systeme und Sensoren nehmen Daten zu jedem Zeitpunkt der Produktion auf und speichern diese in den jeweiligen proprietären Datenspeichersystemen. Durch Middleware werden diese Daten vernetzt und können mittels einer Datenanalyse für Produktallokationen nutzbar gemacht werden. Im Folgenden wird eine Methodik vorgestellt, mit der Data-Analytics-Verfahren für Produktallokationen in globalen Produktionsnetzwerken angewendet werden können.

[ 20 ] Verhaelen, B.; Treber, S.; Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2019), "Standortgerechter Produktionsanlauf im Netzwerk", ZWF Zeitschrift für wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 110-114. https://doi.org/10.3139/104.112050
Abstract:
Vielen kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen bedarf es eines effizienten Managements des Produktionsanlaufs, um ihre globale Wettbewerbsfähigkeit zu erhöhen. Dieser Beitrag stellt einen Ansatz vor, mithilfe einer Standortanalyse und eines Planungs- und Steuerungsmodells den Produktionsanlauf an verschiedenen Standorten effizient durchzuführen. Hierzu werden gegebene Rahmenbedingungen eines Produktionsanlaufs an global verteilten Standorten analysiert und mit Hilfe einer Methodik einem Referenzprozess zugeordnet, um eine Anpassung an wechselnde globale Einflussfaktoren, wie z. B. Faktorkosten oder Marktentwicklungen, zu gewährleisten.

[ 21 ] Hofmann, C.; Stähr, T.; Cohen, S.; Stricker, N.; Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2019), "Augmented Go & See: An approach for improved bottleneck identification in production lines". Procedia Manufacturing , eds. Christoph Herrmann, S. T., pp. 148-154.
Abstract:
Bottlenecks in production lines are often shifting and thus hard to identify. They lead to decreased output, longer throughput times and higher work in progress. Go & See is a well-established Lean practice where managers go to the shop floor to see the problems first hand. Mixed reality is a promising technology to improve transparency in complex production environments. Until recently, mixed reality applications have been very demanding in terms of computing power requiring high performance hardware. This paper presents an approach for real-time KPI visualization using mixed reality for bottleneck identification in production lines relying on the bring-your-own device principle. The developed application uses image recognition to identify work stations and visualizes cycle times and work in progress in augmented reality. With this additional information, it is possible to discern different root causes for bottlenecks, for example systematically higher or varying cycle times due to breakdowns. This solution can be classified according to the acatech industry 4.0 maturity model as a level 3 - transparency - application. It could be shown that the identification of bottlenecks and underlying reasons has been improved compared to standard Go & See.

[ 22 ] Verhaelen, B.; Haefner, B. & Lanza, G. (2019), "Scalable and flexible production ramp-up in global production networks - a strategic network approach". EurOMA Proceedings 2019, eds. EurOMA, pp. 317-326.
Abstract:
Strategic management of global production networks (GPN) is getting increasingly complex and continuously more relevant for the long-term success of producing companies. Each plant in the GPN needs to accomplish goals coming from strategic management to stay competitive by adjusting their plant capabilities. In tactical management, production ramp-up processes are a great chance to be used for adjusting plant capabilities due to the high investment and cost determination character. This paper faces the possibility to integrate production ramp-up processes in the strategic management of GPN. The approach identifies relevant ramp-up dimensions and processes for an early strategy achievement.